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A drawback with chemical solvents is the heat energy required for desorption. This heat energy has two main components:
- The heat of the acid-base reaction (roughly 70 kJ /mol for MEA, Mono-Ethanol-Amine)
- The heat required for the temperature swing, between absorption in the scrubber and desorption in the stripper.
Additional energy requirements come from:
- Heat loss from vapourisation of a fraction of the solvent.
- When steam, as the heat source, is entrained with the CO2 in the stripper, the water must be condensed.
Types of chemical solvent include:
- Amine solvents - this is the most common solvent used in existing and planned carbon capture facilities.
- Carbonate solvents - carbonates of potassium or ammonia form react to form solid bicarbonates, turning the solvent stream into a slurry.
- Aqueous ammonia solvent - similar in principle to amine solvent processes, but operating at lower temperatures. [VERIFY]
This content expresses the point of view of individuals in the CCS community and not necessarily the views of their organisation or the Global CCS Institute.