Projects Database

Large-scale CCS facilities - definition

Large-scale integrated CCS facilities are defined as facilities involving the capture, transport, and storage of CO2 at a scale of:

  • at least 800,000 tonnes of CO2 annually for a coal–based power plant, or
  • at least 400,000 tonnes of CO2 annually for other emissions–intensive industrial facilities (including natural gas–based power generation).

The thresholds listed above correspond to the minimum amounts of CO2 typically emitted by commercial–scale power plants and other industrial facilities. Carbon capture and storage facilities at this scale must inject anthropogenic CO2 into either dedicated geological storage sites and/or enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) operations, to be categorised by the institute as large-scale CCS facilities.

Enhanced oil recovery may result in partial (incidental) or complete storage of injected CO2 in oil reservoirs, subject to technical and economic factors. The institute acknowledges that in some cases and jurisdictions, CO2-EOR operators and/or regulatory authorities may not operate or permit CO2-EOR sites for greenhouse gas mitigation purposes. Nevertheless, such EOR operations can demonstrate both the successful operation of full chain CCS facilities and the secure underground injection of COat industrial scale.

Facilities status - asset lifecycle definition

The asset lifecycle model shown below represents the various stages in the progression of CCS facilities through development, construction, operations, and closure.  There are different systems available to define lifecycle stages, sometimes using different terminology, but all effectively use a similar framework. Key decision points are when (a) a positive final investment decision has been taken to move a development concept into construction and then commissioning and operations, and (b) the facilities move to the process of ceasing operations (Completion).

Early Development – proponents carry out studies and comparisons of alternative CCS facilities development concepts, including alternative CO2 capture sources, technologies, storage locations, facility configurations, etc. For each alternative, costs, benefits, risks and opportunities are identified. During this stage, proponents must continue to consider, for each option, all relevant aspects of the development (i.e. stakeholder management, regulatory approvals, infrastructure, as well as the physical CCS facilities). At the end of this stage, the preferred development option is selected and becomes the subject of the Advanced Development stage. Usually, no more than one option is studied in Advanced Development.

Advanced Development - the selected development option is investigated in greater detail through feasibility and preliminary front-end engineering design (FEED). This may involve determining the specific technology to be used, design and overall project costs, required permits and approvals, and key risks to the development. Other key activities include conducting focused stakeholder engagement processes, seeking out finance or funding opportunities, and undertaking tender processes for engineering, procurement, and contracting suppliers. At the end of this stage, the development must be sufficiently defined for a final investment decision (FID) to be made.

In Construction - the detailed engineering design is finalised, construction and commissioning of the CCS facilities occurs, and the organisation to operate the facilities is established. Once this is completed, the development then moves into operations.

Operating - CCS facilities are operated within regulatory requirements, and maintained and modified, as needed, to improve performance.  

Completion – CCS facilities are being/have been decommissioned and a post-injection monitoring program is implemented.

Facilities status – overall asset lifecycle stage

Integrated CCS facilities involve each element of the CCS chain – capture, transport and storage. In reaching a conclusion about the overall lifecycle stage considered as most appropriate for a particular development, the Institute will initially select the description that is most representative of each of the capture, transport, and storage lifecycle stages of a particular development.  In reviewing the status of these individual lifecycle stages, the Institute will then assign an overall lifecycle stage.

The various descriptions of individual element lifecycle stages are summarised below.

CAPTURE ELEMENT LIFECYCLE STAGE

The capture facility is decommissioned or in the process of being decommissioned.

Completion

The proponent has commissioned capture facilities which are currently operating.

Operating

The investment decision has been made and the proponent is constructing/installing the capture facilities at the host plant.

In Construction

The proponent is in the process of demonstrating the technical and economic viability of a chosen technology, location, and configuration for the capture facilities.

Advanced Development

The proponent is undertaking technical and economic assessments of a range of alternative technology options, locations, and configurations for the capture facilities.

Early Development

TRANSPORT ELEMENT LIFECYCLE STAGE

Transportation of CO2 has ceased and the pipeline has been/is being decommissioned.

Completion

Transportation of CO2 is happening along an operational pipeline (either singular or as part of a network).

Operating

Construction of a new pipeline or conversion of an existing pipeline for CO2 transportation (requalification) is in progress.

In Construction

Design of a pipeline for CO2 transportation is in progress (route/corridor and design).

Advanced/Early Development

STORAGE ELEMENT LIFECYCLE STAGE

Dedicated geological storage

Injection of CO2 has ceased.

Completion

The storage facilities are commissioned and CO2 is currently being injected.

Operating

A CO2 injection permit or licence has been applied for, or been approved, and the storage facilities are being developed.

In Construction

Site characterisation is being performed to determine the most cost-effective storage site/engineering concept solution for CO2 injection and storage.

Advanced Development

The suitability of one or more sites for long-term geological storage of CO2 is being assessed.

Early Development

Enhanced oil (hydrocarbon) recovery (EOR)

Injection of CO2 has ceased.

Completion

Carbon dioxide is currently being injected into a CO2-EOR operation.

Operating

A CO2 injection permit or license has been applied for, or been approved, and the injection facilities are being developed.

In Construction

Site characterisation analyses have been undertaken to establish the suitability of CO2 utilisation, and negotiations for procuring CO2 are (being) finalised.

Advanced Development

Opportunities for using and procuring CO2 have been identified and formal negotiations have commenced.

Early Development