Lost Cabin Gas Plant
Capture: Denbury Resources
Denbury Resources has built compression facilities adjacent to the Lost Cabin Gas Plant (owned by ConocoPhillips) to pressurize the CO2 received from the gas plant, allowing for delivery to the injection site at injection-ready pressure.
Transport and Storage: Denbury Resources
LOCATION: Wyoming (capture) and Montana (storage), United States
CO2 capture source: Lost Cabin Gas Plant, a gas-processing facility located in Fremont County, Wyoming
CO2 storage site: Bell Creek oil field located approximately 48 km / 30 miles southeast of Broadus, Montana
INDUSTRY (FEEDSTOCK): Natural gas processing (natural gas)
OVERALL PROJECT LIFECYCLE STAGE: Operate
CO2 CAPTURE CAPACITY VOLUME: 0.9 million tonnes per annum (Mtpa)
CAPTURE TYPE: Pre-combustion capture (natural gas processing)
CAPTURE METHOD: Absorption physical solvent-based process - Selexol
NEW BUILD OR RETROFIT: Retrofit (to an existing plant)
CO2 CAPTURE START DATE: 2013
PRIMARY STORAGE OPTION: Enhanced oil recovery
STORAGE FORMATION AND DEPTH: Cretaceous Muddy (Newcastle) Formation at a depth of approximately 1,400 metres / 4,500 feet below ground surface
TRANSPORTATION TYPE: Pipeline (onshore to onshore)
TRANSPORTATION DISTANCE TO STORAGE SITE (LENGTH OF PIPELINE): 374 km / 232 miles
The Lost Cabin Gas Plant began operation in 1995 and after a number of major expansions in 1998/1999 and 2002 now consists of three gas processing trains with a total capacity of approximately 310 million cubic feet per day. The plant processes gas from the Madden deep reservoir in the Madden field. The processing plants at Lost Cabin are approximately 145 km / 90 miles west of Casper, Wyoming and 5-8 km / 3-5 miles from the wellheads in the Madden field. The feed gas contains a high percentage of CO2 and hydrogen sulphide (H2S), 20 per cent and 12 per cent respectively.
For much of the plant’s history the captured CO2 was vented to the atmosphere. However, in 2010 Denbury and ConocoPhillips (owner and operator of the Lost Cabin Gas Plant) entered into a CO2 purchase-and-sale agreement, with Denbury to purchase up to 50 million cubic feet per day of CO2(approximately 0.9 Mtpa of CO2). Denbury would also build compression facilities adjacent to the gas plant and a new 374 km / 232 mile pipeline from the plant to the injection site at the Bell Creek oil field (the so-called Greencore CO2 pipeline).
The pipeline was completed in December 2012 and ConocoPhillips began CO2 deliveries in March 2013 with transported CO2 purity at no less than 97 per cent. Allowing time for the pipeline to be filled and pressurized, CO2 injection into the Bell Creek oil field began in May 2013. Subsequent to this Denbury contracted additional CO2 supply from the Shute Creek gas processing facility (in Wyoming) via a tie-in into the Greencore pipeline for use at Bell Creek.
The Bell Creek oil field was first discovered in 1967. It has produced approximately 133 million barrels of oil though by 2010 production had declined to less than 1,000 barrels per day. Denbury acquired the field in 2010 and is conducting a commercial CO2-EOR operation at Bell Creek (based on successful secondary oil recovery using water) that is predicted to extend the life of the field by 20 years and deliver around 30-50 million barrels in incremental oil production through CO2 injection. The CO2 is being injected into the Bell Creek Muddy Formation at a depth of approximately 1400 metres / 4500 feet. The overlying Lower Cretaceous Mowry Shale provides the primary seal. On top of the Mowry Shale are several thousand feet of low-permeability formations that provide further layers preventing vertical migration of CO2.
Bell Creek is also the site of the ‘Bell Creek Integrated CO2 EOR and Storage Project’, a collaboration between Denbury and the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership. The PCOR Partnership includes over 100 stakeholders from the United States and Canada and is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) in Grand Forks, North Dakota. This ‘Bell Creek Integrated CO2 EOR and Storage Project’ is part of PCOR’s effort under the Development Phase (Phase III) of the Partnership’s cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy focused on research studies associated with two commercial-scale geologic carbon sequestration demonstration projects in the region.
The PCOR partnership is collaborating with Denbury Resources to study CO2 storage associated with Denbury's commercial CO2-EOR operations at Bell Creek. Through this collaboration, the PCOR Partnership team is developing and testing advanced models of the behavior of CO2, oil, and water in the subsurface. The knowledge gained from this project will be used to develop a comprehensive approach to monitor injected CO2; including the ability to account for the CO2 during the EOR operation and the ability to verify that the CO2 remains in place in the injection zone after EOR operations have ended. These practical, state-of-the-art techniques can provide the data, knowledge, and experience needed to develop similar EOR and long-term CO2 storage projects across the region.
Key project milestones
November 2012: Greencore pipeline completed
May 2013: CO2 injection into Bell Creek oil field begins
July 2014: Cumualtive CO2 injection into Bell Creek reaches the 1 Mtpa milestone