Test centers and other initiatives
A significant development in capture technology development in the past ten years has been the construction of capture test centres, especially in North America and Europe. These centres have played a key role in the advancement of capture technology. Numerous technology providers have undertaken capture system testing at the scale of the test centres to generate data to support larger scale-up.
There have also been a significant number of initiatives undertaken in the past decade that have helped (or will help) support the development of CCS projects. These initiatives include scoping and techno-economic studies that have not themselves involved a significant amount of operational experience (but may have built on previous experiences). It also includes programs that are not easily allocated into the other ‘project’ classification – for example, studies that have involved the controlled release of small amounts of CO2 to test for environmental impacts and recommendation for improving monitoring systems.
This is not meant to be an exhaustive listing, rather to provide a sense of the significant amount of work on broader CCS development undertaken outside the more popularly quoted larger scale and pilot scale projects.
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|Project Name||Short description|
|Acorn (Minimum Viable CCS Development)||
The primary objective of the Acorn project is to initiate a low cost full chain CCS project in the North East of Scotland. This would act as a seed [Acorn] from which to grow a cluster of capture, transport and storage infrastructure, using the unique combination of legacy circumstances at St Fergus in North East Scotland, where CO2 is separated from natural gas and vented, adjacent to an offshore transport pipeline, which connects to a well understood offshore basin, rich in storage opportunities. Funding to support the project is being sought from the ACT (Accelerating CCS Technologies) initiative.
Starting around 1990, CCS research in the Netherlands (and Europe) was done largely in a number of dedicated single-disciplinary national and European R&D projects. From 2004, Dutch national CCS research has been undertaken under the CATO programme umbrella, covering the full CCS chain and addressing both fundamental and applied topics (including regulation and safety and public perception).
|CO2 Capture Project (CCP)||
The CCP was formed in 2000 as a partnership of major energy companies working to advance CCS for the oil and gas industry. Aside from capture and storage, monitoring and verification, the CCP is also addressing policy and incentives. Current CCP4 is the latest phase focusing on further advancement spanning the period 2014 -2018.
The purpose of the CO2FieldLab Project ("CO2 Field Laboratory for Monitoring and Safety Assessment") is to test the sensitivity of a variety of monitoring systems by observing the migration of small amounts of injected CO2 in the shallow subsurface. The project is led by SINTEF Petroleum Research.
|CO2MultiStore Joint Industrial Project (JIP)||
The CO2MultiStore JIP was an important research project that began in September 2012 and was led by Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage (with joint funding and expert support from CCS project developers and public corporations). A key objective of the project was to support the development of multi-user regional CO2 storage assets.
CO2stCap (Cutting Cost of CO2 Capture in Process Industry) is a four year project (2015-2019) aimed at reducing the cost of industrial CO2 capture processes.
CO2STORE was an EU supported FP-5 project and was a follow-up to the two Saline Aquifer CO2 Storage (SACS & SACS2 of Sleipner CO2 Storage Project offshore Norway) research projects. CO2STORE widened its scope to review additional geological settings of possible storage sites in Denmark, Norway, Germany and the United Kingdom.
Dynamis was designed as part of the HYPOGEN initiative and investigated viable routes to large-scale co-production schemes for hydrogen and electricity production (HYPOGEN projects) with fully integrated CO2 management.
|ECRA CCS Project||
The European Cement Research Academy (ECRA) CCS Project was started in 2007 as a long-term project to assess the technical and economic feasibility of the application of CCS technologies to the cement industry. The Phase 4 is currently underway to examine the possibility of initiating an industrial-scale oxyfuel kiln.
ENCAP (Enhanced Capture of CO2) was an EU sponsored FP-6 project conducted from March 2004 to February 2009. The goal of the ENCAP project was to develop and validate a number of pre-combustion technologies targeting at least a 90% CO2 capture rate and 50% capture cost reduction for use in fossil-fuel based power plants.
The MUSTANG Project conducted a multiple space and time scale approach for the quantification of deep saline formations for CO2 storage from 2009 to 2014. The project consortium, coordinated by Uppsala Universitet, comprised 19 project partners and over 20 affiliated organisations.
Quantifying and Monitoring Environmental Impacts of Geological Carbon Storage (QICS) involved the assessment and monitoring of the first controlled release of CO2 into sea-bed sediments. The project ran from 2010-2014 and was a collaboration between a range of UK and Japanese research institutes and universities, led by the Plymouth Marine Laboratory.
The STEMM-CCS (Strategies for Environmental Monitoring of Marine Carbon Capture and Storage) project will test CO2 leak detection, leak quantification and mitigation / remediation decision-support techniques in 2018, located in and under the North Sea, approximately 100 km northeast of Aberdeen. A central part of the project is a deep-water controlled experiment simulating emission from a sub-seabed CO2 reservoir.