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4.3 Mass balance
The capacity requirements for the different chain components are defined by a mass balance for the presented case. A schematic representation of the LLSC including the mass capacities is presented in Figure 6. The presented capacities are normal and design capacities in million tonnes per year.
Figure 6: Schematic representation LLSC including mass balance for selected case study
The scheme shows that most components in the LLSC are included. The terminal being the central point in the concept, collects gaseous and liquid CO2 from different emitters and supplies the required amounts of CO2 to the sinks. The only route which is not part of the normal operating mode in this case is the vaporization of liquid CO2 to gaseous form. The technologies available for this function will nonetheless be discussed, since it is an essential part of the concept, that may be required if another initial development case is selected in a next phase or in a future expansion or as a backup facility to divert flow from a shipping to a pipeline outlet. Another reason that may call for vaporization at the hub is that onshore pipeline permitting is not always achievable in which case river transportation may be selected while offshore pipeline transportation remain preferable over shipping which then subsequently may call for this vaporization at the coastline hub.