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The basis used for the LLSC consists of a set of five emitters. The emitters are selected to address all options the LLSC has to offer and are typical emitters available for CO2 capture in the Rotterdam area and its inland emitters.
The first emitter (Emitter A) is transporting supercritical CO2 at high pressure to an offshore empty gas field. This emitter is assumed to be a coal fired power plant equipped with post-combustion CO2 capture. The captured CO2 is bypassing the terminal, but the high pressure pipeline for this emitter is oversized for its own capacity and is used as the high pressure pipeline outlet for the terminal as well. The connection to the terminal could potentially be used as backup from emitter A to the terminal in case of downtime of its own sink.
The second emitter (Emitter B) is assumed to be a large local IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) power plant using coal and biomass for conversion into electrical power by gasification, where after gasification CO2 is captured by pre-combustion technology before the remaining hydrogen is used for power generation. Emitter B will be connected to the terminal by a dedicated pipeline. The specifics of this pipeline will be discussed in the design of the onshore CO2 collection network.
Third emitter (Emitter C) is assumed to be a hydrogen generation plant located approximately 20 kilometers from the terminal. Emitter C and the fourth emitter (Emitter D), also assumed to be a hydrogen generation plant, form the basis for the design of the onshore CO2 collection network. Emitter D is located at approximately 25 kilometers from the terminal.
Finally a fifth and last emitter (Emitter E) is assumed to be a IGCC plant located inland at a distance of approximately 160 kilometers from the terminal. For emitter E transportation of the CO2 is done by river barges, which requires the liquefaction of the CO2 at the emitter location.
The design data of the different emitters is summarized in the following table, including the assumed emitted capacities in yearly average and maximum values. More details of the emitter will be presented, if required, in the applicable chain components discussions on which these emitters have an influence.
|Emitter||Type of plant||Capture technology||Distance to terminal (straight line)||Connection to terminal||Normal annual flow||Maximum annual flow|
|Emitter A||Power plant, powder coal and biomass||Post-combustion||1 km||Pipeline||1.1 MTA||1.5 MTA|
|Emitter B||Power plant, IGCC, coal and biomass||Pre-combustion||0.5 km||Pipeline||2.5 MTA||3.0 MTA|
|Emitter C||Hydrogen plant||Pre-combustion||20 km||Pipeline||0.5 MTA||0.6 MTA|
|Emitter D||Hydrogen plant||Pre-combustion||25 km||Pipeline||0.5 MTA||0.6 MTA|
|Emitter E||Power plant, IGCC, coal||Pre-combustion||160 km||Barge||1.0 MTA||1.2 MTA|
|TOTAL||5.6 MTA||6.9 MTA|
Table 5: Summary of emitter data
At this stage detailed information on the conditions at the emitter flanges is not available. For this study the following emitter conditions are assumed:
- Operating pressure: 0 barg;
- Operating temperature: 35 °C;
- Composition: see Chapter 3.3;
- Water saturated at operating conditions.