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4.6 New CCS projects
A number of other projects are currently being formed to demonstrate the whole CCS chain, each claiming to be a ‘world first’. A number are described below, but the details available at time of writing are limited.
4.6.1 Australia - Gorgon
The Gorgon project starts with removing carbon dioxide from a natural gas deposit, prior to the production of LNG. Some of the carbon dioxide will be re-injected to increase yield, and some will be stored. The carbon dioxide disposal target is a saline formation in the Dupuy Formation located around 2 000 m beneath Barrow Island. The volume of reservoir carbon dioxide to be re-injected is about 100 MT. The proposed injection site was selected to maximise the carbon dioxide migration distance from major faults and limit environmental disturbance.
Once the carbon dioxide is injected into the subsurface, it will move through the host reservoir, driven by the injection pressure and buoyancy until it becomes trapped.
4.6.2 Australia - ZeroGen
In June of 2009, MHI signed a contract with the Queensland government to build a 530 MW IGCC plant with pre-combustion carbon dioxide capture and storage, scheduled to open in 2015. A smaller pilot plant had been planned, but confidence was sufficiently high that a decision was made to proceed directly to a commercial demonstration size. The cost of the project is estimated at $2,04 bn. The project would comprise MHI’s air-blown gasification system and would probably use the M701G2 gas turbine, which will handle high hydrogen fuels and deliver high efficiency. Underground carbon dioxide storage is planned.
4.6.3 Germany - Goldenbergwerk
Announced in August 2008, this would be a new IGCC power plant to be constructed in Hürth near Cologne and operated using domestic lignite with an estimated gross capacity of some 450 MW. Carbon dioxide removal would be pre-combustion. It could go on stream as early as 2014, with an investment of up to €2 bn. The carbon dioxide would be transported 530 km overland at 200 bar to a saline formation in the Schleswig-Holstein region.
4.6.4 The Netherlands - Magnum
The Nuon Magnum project is for a 1 200 MW multi-fuel power plant based on IGCC technology, building on experience gained on the Shell Demkolec power station at Buggenum. It is to be constructed at Eemshaven in the north of the Netherlands. This is described as a phased project, initially the CCGT islands using Mitsubishi equipment will be constructed, (operation 2011) then the gasification islands as ‘carbon capture ready’, and finally, the carbon dioxide will be captured pre-combustion and stored (operation 2015). The multi-fuels will include biomass. Ground preparation work on the site has commenced.
4.6.5 United Kingdom - Blyth
In 2007, RWE npower announced a feasibility study into the construction of a new 2 400 MW supercritical coal-fired power station at the site of the former Blyth Power Station in Northumbria. The new power station would be designed to be ‘carbon capture ready’ using post-combustion technology to enable CCS to be implemented once it had been proven. Facilities would also be included to allow biomass to be co-fired with coal. The station could be operational by 2014 and cost around £2 billion.
4.6.6 United Kingdom - Cockenzie
Scottish Power announced a feasibility study into converting Cockenzie and Longannet, its two largest power stations, to clean coal (supercritical) technology in 2007. The total generating capacity of the two stations is 3 390 MW and the new technology would see carbon dioxide emissions reductions of 20 % at both stations compared to the existing boilers, as a result of higher efficiency. Operation is expected to start in 2012. The stations will also be designed to incorporate carbon capture technology, which is being developed at Longannet. It is planned that the captured carbon dioxide would be used in Enhanced Coal-Bed Methane Recovery (allowing methane gas to be recovered from coal seams and the carbon dioxide to be stored).
4.6.7 United Kingdom - Eston Grange
The Eston Grange project is located in Teesside, UK, and is 850 MW. Carbon dioxide removal is described as around 85 %, and the intention would be to store this under the North Sea using a network developed by COOTS Ltd, which would also receive carbon dioxide from other producers in Teesside and the North East of England.
4.6.8 United Kingdom - Hatfield
In 2003 planning permission was granted for a major re-development of the Hatfield Colliery Site, which included permission to develop a new 900 MW IGCC power plant. A phased approach is planned, initially a ‘capture ready’ IGCC will be constructed and pre-combustion CCS added once commercial conditions are suitable and a disposal route is available. The plant is expected to begin operation at the end of 2011 and could be available for CCS by 2013.
4.6.9 United Kingdom - Kingsnorth
E.ON is proposing to construct two new 800 MW coal units at their Kingsnorth power station. By virtue of the use of higher levels of efficiency, these will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by approximately 20 % compared to the existing plant. It is proposed that the units would be built ‘carbon capture ready’. Retrofitting with post-combustion capture would allow approximately 90 % of emissions to be captured and subsequently stored in depleted gas fields under the North Sea.
4.6.10 United Kingdom - Lynemouth
Lynemouth power station has 3 off 140 MW steam turbines. Rio Tinto Alcan are proposing an innovative retrofit option which involves conversion of one of the units into an IGCC with pre-combustion capture. The plant will capture around 2 255 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year. The export pipeline will join the Teesside pipeline (see 4.6.7) and a common pipeline infrastructure will then transport carbon dioxide to the saline formation to be used as the primary store. This CCS project can be operating by 201567.
4.6.11 United Kingdom - Tilbury
In 2007, RWE npower announced plans for a 1 600 MW cleaner coal power station to replace the existing power station at Tilbury. Two new 800 MW supercritical coal-fired units would achieve a reduction in emissions of 22 % compared to the current power station as a result of the use of higher efficiency technology. It will be designed to be ‘carbon capture ready’ and will also include facilities to burn biomass. A feasibility study to explore developing the new station and to understand the CCS options for the site began in 2006.
4.6.12 United States of America - Carson (DF2)
The Carson Hydrogen Power Project would take petcoke from refineries in the LA Basin into a 450 MW IGCC facility with polygeneration, where 90 % of the carbon dioxide would be removed. Costs are estimated at about $2 bn, and about 4m tonnes/year of carbon dioxide will be captured, and probably used for EOR applications. An investment decision is expected in 2011.
The Gorgon project, being planned by Chevron, proposes to extract natural gas with a 10–15 % carbon dioxide content from a reservoir and liquefy it for export. The carbon dioxide extracted will be compressed and sent via a 12 km pipeline for storage in a saline formation.