Gorgon Carbon Dioxide Injection
The Gorgon Carbon Dioxide Injection development is an integral part of the Gorgon Project which is being constructed by Chevron on behalf of a joint venture comprising Chevron (47.3 per cent, operator), Shell (25 per cent), ExxonMobil (25 per cent), Osaka Gas (1.25 per cent), Tokyo Gas (1 per cent) and Chubu Electric Power (0.417 per cent)
LOCATION: Onshore Barrow Island, Western Australia, Australia
CO2 capture source: carbon dioxide extracted as part of gas processing at a facility currently being constructed on Barrow Island. Barrow Island is approximately 70 km / 43 miles off the northwest coast of Western Australia.
CO2 storage site: Dupuy Formation over 2 kilometres / 1.2 miles below Barrow Island
INDUSTRY (FEEDSTOCK): Natural gas processing (natural gas)
OVERALL PROJECT LIFECYCLE STAGE: In construction
CO2 INJECTION CAPACITY VOLUME: 3.4-4.0 million tonnes per annum (Mtpa)
CAPTURE TYPE: Industrial separation
CAPTURE METHOD: Absorption chemical solvent-based process (Amine)
NEW BUILD OR RETROFIT: New build
CO2 INJECTION START DATE: Commissioning and start-up of the Gorgon Project commenced in 2015 and will occur over the next few years. The project will initially be commissioned on gas from the Jansz field, which contains low levels of reservoir carbon dioxide. Only once gas from the Gorgon field is flowing to the onshore plant in sufficient volumes to justify the operation of the carbon dioxide compressors, will commissioning of the carbon dioxide injection system be undertaken. The Institute anticipates this is likely to occur in 2017.
PRIMARY STORAGE OPTION: Dedicated geological storage - onshore formation
STORAGE FORMATION AND DEPTH: Dupuy Formation (sandstone) approximately 2.3 kilometres / 1.4 miles below Barrow Island
TRANSPORTATION TYPE: Pipeline (onshore to onshore)
TRANSPORTATION DISTANCE TO STORAGE SITE (LENGTH OF PIPELINE): 7 kilometres / 4.3 mile pipeline from natural gas processing facilities to injection wells
The Gorgon Carbon Dioxide Injection facilities are part of the wider Gorgon gas development project, which involves development of the Gorgon and Jansz gas fields located within the Greater Gorgon area in the Barrow sub-basin of the Carnarvon Basin. The Greater Gorgon area has gas resources estimated at over 50 trillion cubic feet. The Gorgon and Jansz fields are located between 130 kilometres / 80 miles and 200 kilometres / 125 miles respectively off Western Australia’s Pilbara coast in waters ranging from 200-1,350 metres / 660‑4,500 feet deep.
The Gorgon Project development plan includes the following key features:
- The initial drilling of 18 high-rate, big-bore gas production wells, eight at the Gorgon field and ten at the Jansz field;
- A sub-sea gathering system, sub-sea pipelines and onshore pipelines to deliver gas from the Gorgon and Jansz fields to the gas treatment facilities on the east coast of Barrow Island (located 80 kilometres / 50 miles and 150 kilometres / 93 miles respectively from the sub-sea gathering facilities);
- Three liquefied natural gas trains with a combined production capacity of 15.6 million tonnes of liquefied natural gas per annum;
- A 300 terajoule per day domestic gas plant and a domestic gas pipeline that runs from Barrow Island to the Western Australian mainland where it ties into the existing Dampier to Bunbury natural gas pipeline;
- Marine facilities for the loading and export of liquefied natural gas and condensate into export tankers; and
- Greenhouse gas management through the injection of reservoir carbon dioxide into the Dupuy Formation beneath Barrow Island.
The gas being processed on Barrow Island is anticipated to contain on average around 7 per cent reservoir carbon dioxide which must be removed for sales gas to meet market specification. Gas from the Gorgon field contains on average around 14 per cent reservoir carbon dioxide. Gas from the Jansz field contains less than 1 per cent reservoir carbon dioxide.
The raw natural gas is collected from the Gorgon and Jansz fields and transported through the subsea gathering system and pipelines to Barrow Island for downstream processing. The raw gas undergoes several stages of processing, including the removal of any water or condensate, removal of any reservoir carbon dioxide, dehydration, and mercury removal, before being processed in the liquefaction and domestic gas trains.
The Gorgon Project has three carbon dioxide removal trains, each processing one-third of the total gas flow. An activated methyldiethanolamine (αMDEA), is used as the solvent to remove carbon dioxide as well as trace amounts of incidental associated substances.
The captured reservoir carbon dioxide is then compressed and piped to the injection wells where it will be injected into the Dupuy formation, more than 2 kilometres / 1.2 miles below Barrow Island.
The CO2 injection plan includes integrated monitoring, reservoir management and risk management strategies.
Carbon dioxide injection is anticipated to reduce annual greenhouse gas emissions from the Gorgon Project by around 40 per cent. Over the life of the Project greenhouse gas emissions will be reduced by over 100 million tonnes. The Gorgon Carbon Dioxide Injection development represents the largest greenhouse gas mitigation 'project' undertaken globally (to inject into a dedicated geological storage formation).
February 2003: Gorgon Joint Venture release of the Environment, Social and Economic Review of the Gorgon Gas Development on Barrow Island. This document proposes the underground Injection of reservoir carbon dioxide provided it remains technically feasible and not cost prohibitive.
November 2003: The Western Australian Government gave in principle support to the Gorgon Project on Barrow Island subject to a formal environmental impact assessment. The in principle approval was reflected in the passage of the Barrow Island Act (WA) 2003 and its Schedule 1 the Gorgon Gas Processing and Infrastructure Project Agreement (the Gorgon State Agreement).
August 2009: The Western Australian and Commonwealth Governments approve a three-train Gorgon LNG development plan, and confirm they would jointly accept responsibility for any long-term liability associated with the underground injection of reservoir CO2 along similar terms to that contained in the Offshore Petroleum and Greenhouse Gas Storage Act 2006 (Commonwealth).
September 2009: The Gorgon joint venture achieves a final investment decision and begins construction.
December 2009: Osaka Gas, Tokyo Gas and Chubu Electric Power join Chevron, Shell and ExxonMobil in the Gorgon joint venture.
September 2013: CO2 injection wells multi-year drilling campaign commences.
June 2014: The first of three carbon dioxide compression modules arrives on Barrow Island
November 2014: CO2 pipeline installation complete
January 2015: Commencement of commissioning and start-up operations for the Gorgon Project. This process will progressively occur over several years.
February 2015: The second carbon dioxide compression module is delivered to Barrow Island
March 2015: All nine injection wells drilled and ready for perforation and instillation of well completions
January 2016: The third carbon dioxide compression module is delivered to Barrow Island
March 2016: Commissioning and start-up of the first LNG processing train complete and production of first LNG