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Our publications, reports and research library hosts over 500 specialist reports and research papers on all topics associated with CCS.

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The costs of CCS and other low-carbon technologies in the United States: 2015 update
The costs of CCS and other low-carbon technologies in the United States: 2015 update

27th July 2015

Topic(s): Economics, Carbon capture, use and storage (CCUS)

This paper examines costs of major low and zero emissions technologies currently available in power generation and compares them in terms of emissions reduction potential and costs. The analysis uses cost and performance data from several recent studies in the United States, and applies a common methodology and economic parameters to derive comparable lifetime costs per generation output and of CO2 avoided.

The analysis demonstrates that CCS is a cost competitive power sector emissions reduction tool when considered among the range of available low and zero emissions technologies. While CCS adds additional costs to traditional fossil fuel generation, the underlying coal and gas generation technology and fuel sources are relatively cheap, and CCS has higher rates of utilisation than some renewables technologies.

This publication updates the 2011 edition of The costs of CCS and other low-carbon technologies.

 

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Disclaimer

The content within the Global CCS Institute Publications, Reports and Research Library is provided for information purposes only. We make every effort and take reasonable care to keep the content of this section up-to-date and error-free. However, we make no claim as to its accuracy, currency or reliability.

Content and material featured within this section of our website includes reports and research published by third parties. The content and material may include opinions and recommendations of third parties that do not reflect those held by the Global CCS Institute.

ADB Technical Assistance Project: Aspen simulation and evaluation of economic feasibility of CO2 capture for Gaojing gas fired power plant
ADB Technical Assistance Project: Aspen simulation and evaluation of economic feasibility of CO2 capture for Gaojing gas fired power plant

1st September 2014

Topic(s): Economics, Carbon capture, use and storage (CCUS)

This research project is an extension of the ADB-PRC joint initiative, Study on Carbon Capture and Storage in Natural Gas-Based Power Plants (TA-8001-PRC). What follows is a bottom-up economic assessment of the proposed Gaojing combined heat and power (CHP) CCS plant that:

  • Evaluates CO2 capture energy consumption in different scenarios and optimize that consumption
  • Makes an economic feasibility evaluation of Gaojing CHP’s CO2 capture retrofitting
  • Evaluates the advantages of meeting capture-ready criteria in subsequent CCS implementation
  • Recommends the capture-ready conditions for Gaojing CHP at different carbon capture rates

 

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Disclaimer

The content within the Global CCS Institute Publications, Reports and Research Library is provided for information purposes only. We make every effort and take reasonable care to keep the content of this section up-to-date and error-free. However, we make no claim as to its accuracy, currency or reliability.

Content and material featured within this section of our website includes reports and research published by third parties. The content and material may include opinions and recommendations of third parties that do not reflect those held by the Global CCS Institute.

Proceedings from the 2013 CCS Costs Workshop
Proceedings from the 2013 CCS Costs Workshop

1st December 2013

Topic(s): Economics, Carbon capture, use and storage (CCUS)

The International Energy Agency hosted the fourth meeting of the Expert Group on CCS costs on November 6-7 2013 in Paris.

The current knowledge regarding the costs of CCS applications - particularly for industry - were presented at the meeting and the agreed outcomes for the Group to take forward are included in these proceedings.

This work program consists of two streams of activities. The first stream, to improve the transparency of CCS cost calculations for industrial applications of CCS, included:

  • Consideration of a number of case studies industrial applications and identification of the challenges that arose estimating costs.
  • What types of methodologies are used to estimate costs for industrial applications and how do they differ from power cost estimation processes.
  • Identification of costs in retrofit applications in the power sector, refinery, and demonstration plants currently under construction.

The second stream of activity focused on identifying and comparing the variety of methods used in cost estimation of new capture concepts and advanced technologies. Costs for this class of technology are the most uncertain, yet decisions on R&D priorities and scale-up of advanced process often depend on projections of future cost. Examples of approaches considered include:

  • Probabilistic methods in conjunctions with traditional engineering economics
  • ‘Learning curves’ to project future costs
  • Expert elicitations regarding future cost and performance
  • Risk-based methods associated with technology readiness levels
  • Non-economic measure such as the projected energy penalty of alternative capture approaches

This paper includes links to the presentations and a summary of the discussion and outcomes from the meeting.

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Disclaimer

The content within the Global CCS Institute Publications, Reports and Research Library is provided for information purposes only. We make every effort and take reasonable care to keep the content of this section up-to-date and error-free. However, we make no claim as to its accuracy, currency or reliability.

Content and material featured within this section of our website includes reports and research published by third parties. The content and material may include opinions and recommendations of third parties that do not reflect those held by the Global CCS Institute.

Impacts of carbon capture and storage (CCS) on South African national priorities other than climate change
Impacts of carbon capture and storage (CCS) on South African national priorities other than climate change

1st October 2013

Topic(s): Economics, Carbon capture, use and storage (CCUS)

This report provides an assessment of the impact of deploying CCS on national priorities other than climate change in South Africa. The report is premised on the assumption that CCS will form part of an integrated basket of measures that include reducing energy consumption and expanding non-fossil energy systems including wind, solar, biomass and geothermal to reduce GHG emissions in South Africa. In contrast to other studies that have assessed the impacts of individual CCS projects, this study covers a much larger integrated CCS programme. This report does not compare the various options for GHG mitigation. Moreover, it is assumed, that South Africa would learn from successful pilot and demonstration projects around the world in the interim period and that the implementation of commercial roll out of full-scale CCS programme will be implemented post 2020.

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Disclaimer

The content within the Global CCS Institute Publications, Reports and Research Library is provided for information purposes only. We make every effort and take reasonable care to keep the content of this section up-to-date and error-free. However, we make no claim as to its accuracy, currency or reliability.

Content and material featured within this section of our website includes reports and research published by third parties. The content and material may include opinions and recommendations of third parties that do not reflect those held by the Global CCS Institute.

Toward a common method of cost estimation for CO2 capture and storage at fossil fuel power plants
Toward a common method of cost estimation for CO2 capture and storage at fossil fuel power plants

30th January 2013

Topic(s): Economics, Carbon capture, use and storage (CCUS)

There are more than 100 papers in the public domain on the costs of CCS. However, there are significant differences in the methods employed by various organizations to estimate the cost of CCS systems for fossil fuel power plants. Many of these differences were discussed at a series of workshops, commencing in 2011, through which an international group of experts from industrial firms, government agencies, universities, and environmental organizations met to share information and perspectives on CCS costs for electric power plants.

Such differences often are not readily apparent in publicly reported CCS cost estimates. As a consequence, there is a significant degree of misunderstanding, confusion, and misrepresentation of CCS cost information, especially among audiences not familiar with the details of CCS costing.

A key recommendation of the first workshop was that a task force be formed to develop guidelines and recommendations for a costing method and nomenclature that could be broadly adopted to produce more consistent and transparent cost estimates for CCS applied to electric power plants.

Commencing in late 2011, and Chaired by Ed Rubin, task force members George Booras (EPRI), John Davison (IEAGHG), Clas Ekstrom (Vattenfall), Mike Matuszewski (USDOE/NETL), Sean McCoy (IEA) and Chris Short (Global CCS Institute) prepared a White Paper outlining both differences that exist in many current studies as well as providing guidelines and procedures for CCS costing, encompassing the full chain of CCS.

The aim of the work is not to suggest or recommend a uniform set of assumptions or premises for CCS cost estimates. There are good reasons why the cost of a given technology may vary from one situation to another and from one location to another. Rather, the sole objective is to help all parties with an interest or stake in CCS costing do a better job by addressing the major deficiencies in current costing methods, especially differences in the items included in a cost analysis.

The report addresses six major topics relevant to CCS costs

  • defining project scope and design
  • defining nomenclature and cost categories for CCS cost estimates
  • quantifying elements of CCS cost
  • defining financial structure and economic assumptions
  • calculating the costs of electricity and CO2 avoided
  • guidelines for CCS cost reporting

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Disclaimer

The content within the Global CCS Institute Publications, Reports and Research Library is provided for information purposes only. We make every effort and take reasonable care to keep the content of this section up-to-date and error-free. However, we make no claim as to its accuracy, currency or reliability.

Content and material featured within this section of our website includes reports and research published by third parties. The content and material may include opinions and recommendations of third parties that do not reflect those held by the Global CCS Institute.

Carbon capture and storage: an approach to understanding potential risks and their cost implications
Carbon capture and storage: an approach to understanding potential risks and their cost implications

1st October 2012

Topic(s): Economics, Carbon capture, use and storage (CCUS)

This analysis is intended to help industry make informed investment decisions, to be useful in the further development of laws and regulations governing CCS, and to better inform the public in whose communities CCS projects may be operated. This analysis will also be useful in considering policies to address the long-term stewardship of CO2 in geologic formations. CCS projects are longlived. In a typical large project, CO2 injection might take place over a 30–50 year horizon and the CO2 must stay securely in the formation for much longer.

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Disclaimer

The content within the Global CCS Institute Publications, Reports and Research Library is provided for information purposes only. We make every effort and take reasonable care to keep the content of this section up-to-date and error-free. However, we make no claim as to its accuracy, currency or reliability.

Content and material featured within this section of our website includes reports and research published by third parties. The content and material may include opinions and recommendations of third parties that do not reflect those held by the Global CCS Institute.

Potential cost reductions in CCS in the power sector: discussion paper
Potential cost reductions in CCS in the power sector: discussion paper

1st May 2012

Topic(s): Economics, Carbon capture, use and storage (CCUS)

This discussion paper presents a summary of the findings of Mott MacDonald’s energy economics team on the potential for cost reduction in CCS in the power sector in the UK. The paper is intended to stimulate further thinking, particularly through the CCS Cost Reduction Task Force. This paper identifies the main activities that could potentially drive a reduction in the cost of commercial scale CCS and estimate the scale of any potential cost reduction, focusing on the near to medium term. It comments on how CCS affects power generation costs, reviews how other studies have approached cost reduction and discusses bottom-up projections of the scope for cost reduction across the main technology routes.

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Disclaimer

The content within the Global CCS Institute Publications, Reports and Research Library is provided for information purposes only. We make every effort and take reasonable care to keep the content of this section up-to-date and error-free. However, we make no claim as to its accuracy, currency or reliability.

Content and material featured within this section of our website includes reports and research published by third parties. The content and material may include opinions and recommendations of third parties that do not reflect those held by the Global CCS Institute.

Project Pioneer. Preliminary economic evaluation of Project Pioneer's potential impacts on the Alberta economy: non-confidential report
Project Pioneer. Preliminary economic evaluation of Project Pioneer's potential impacts on the Alberta economy: non-confidential report

16th December 2011

Topic(s): Economics, Carbon capture, use and storage (CCUS)

This report describes a preliminary evaluation of the economic impacts of Project Pioneer on the province of Alberta, completed in 2009 at the inception of the project. The project is expected to generate between CA$2 billion and CA$3 billion in Alberta GDP (depending on future oil prices) over this 14-year period. The increases in Labour Income are expected to be about CA$700 million, and combined provincial and municipal revenues are estimated to grow by between CA$225 million and CA$850 million. The estimated impact on Federal Government revenue is between CA$260 and CA$330 million, while total employment is expected to be approximately 8800 person years. 

In this report, TransAlta also estimates the economic impacts that might accrue if the technology and refinements from Project Pioneer are successful and more broadly applied to other sectors. 

Pioneer is currently conducting a follow-up economic evaluation through Q1/2011 and Q2/2012. The results of this report will become available on the Institute’s website at a later stage in 2012. 

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Disclaimer

The content within the Global CCS Institute Publications, Reports and Research Library is provided for information purposes only. We make every effort and take reasonable care to keep the content of this section up-to-date and error-free. However, we make no claim as to its accuracy, currency or reliability.

Content and material featured within this section of our website includes reports and research published by third parties. The content and material may include opinions and recommendations of third parties that do not reflect those held by the Global CCS Institute.

Proceedings from CCS cost workshop: 22-23 March 2011
Proceedings from CCS cost workshop: 22-23 March 2011

7th November 2011

Topic(s): Economics, Carbon capture, use and storage (CCUS)

CCS is one of a number of key low-carbon technologies required to decarbonise energy production this century if the risks of climate change are to be managed effectively. The need to establish an Expert Group on CCS costs was identified in response to the growing number of reports regarding the costs of CCS. The inaugural meeting was held March 2011, hosted by the International Energy Agency. The current understanding of the costs of CCS presented at that meeting and the agreed outcomes for the Group to take forward are included in this document. This work program consists of efforts to improve both the transparency of CCS cost calculations and the broader challenges associated with conveying messages around costs to the broader community.

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Disclaimer

The content within the Global CCS Institute Publications, Reports and Research Library is provided for information purposes only. We make every effort and take reasonable care to keep the content of this section up-to-date and error-free. However, we make no claim as to its accuracy, currency or reliability.

Content and material featured within this section of our website includes reports and research published by third parties. The content and material may include opinions and recommendations of third parties that do not reflect those held by the Global CCS Institute.

Electricity generation cost model: 2011 update revision 1
Electricity generation cost model: 2011 update revision 1

5th August 2011

Topic(s): Economics, Carbon capture, use and storage (CCUS)

This report provides the supporting information to the update of cost assumptions and technical inputs for the DECC Levelised Electricity Cost Model. 
The report begins by defining the scope of the work which PB undertook and the general limitations which were experienced. The methodology of the work, including the general approach and the data sources used, are then detailed. Also, any fundamental changes which had to be made to the model are explained.

The main focus of the report is an analysis of the methods and assumptions used to update the cost and technical inputs. The main parameters of key timings, technical data, capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs are discussed in full. The report is concluded by giving an overview of each technology, in terms of the notable updates and key reasons behind these updates. The current state of the technology and any expected future changes are also discussed.

A summary of the updated cost assumptions and technical inputs have been included in the appendices of the report, along with the subsequent levelised cost results.

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Disclaimer

The content within the Global CCS Institute Publications, Reports and Research Library is provided for information purposes only. We make every effort and take reasonable care to keep the content of this section up-to-date and error-free. However, we make no claim as to its accuracy, currency or reliability.

Content and material featured within this section of our website includes reports and research published by third parties. The content and material may include opinions and recommendations of third parties that do not reflect those held by the Global CCS Institute.

The costs of CO2 capture, transport and storage: Post-demonstration CCS in the EU
The costs of CO2 capture, transport and storage: Post-demonstration CCS in the EU

20th July 2011

Topic(s): Economics, Carbon capture, use and storage (CCUS)

ZEP is an advisor to the European Union on the research demonstration and deployment of CCS. The ZEP’s Taskforce Technology has undertaken a study into the costs of complete CCS value chains – i.e. the capture, transport and storage of CO2 – estimated for new-build coal- and natural gas-fired power plants, located at a generic site in Northern Europe from the early 2020s. Utilising new, in-house data provided by ZEP member organisations, it establishes a reference point for the costs of CCS, based on a 'snapshot' in time (all investment costs are referenced to the second quarter of 2009).

Three Working Groups were tasked with analysing the costs related to CO2 capture, CO2 transport and CO2 storage respectively. The resulting integrated CCS value chains, based on these three individual reports, are presented in this summary report. For a complete picture of how the results were obtained, and all underlying assumptions, please refer to the three individual reports.

CO2 Capture Cost report
CO2 Transport Cost report
CO2 Storage Cost report

The overall report’s key conclusions are as follows:

Post 2020, CCS will be cost-competitive with other low-carbon energy technologies

The EU CCS demonstration programme will not only validate and prove the costs of CCS technologies, but form the basis for future cost reductions, enhanced by the introduction of second- and third-generation technologies. The results of the study therefore indicate that post-demonstration CCS will be cost competitive with other low-carbon energy technologies as a reliable source of low-carbon power. CCS is on track to become one of the key technologies for combating climate change – within a portfolio of technologies, including greater energy efficiency and renewable energy.

CCS is applicable to both coal-and natural gas-fired power plants

CCS can technically be applied to both coal- and natural gas-fired power plants. Their relative economics depend on power plant cost levels, fuel prices and market positioning, whereas applicability is mainly determined by load regime.

All three CO2 capture technologies could be competitive once successfully demonstrated

The study includes the three main capture technologies (post-combustion, pre-combustion and oxy-fuel), but excludes second-generation technologies (e.g. chemical looping, advanced gas turbine cycles). Using agreed assumptions and the Levelised Cost of Electricity as the main quantitative value, there is currently no clear difference between any of the capture technologies and all could be competitive in the future once successfully demonstrated. The main factors influencing total costs are fuel and investment costs.

Early strategic planning of large-scale CO2 transport infrastructure is vital to reduce costs

Clustering plants to a transport network can achieve significant economies of scale – in both CO2 transport and CO2 storage in larger reservoirs, on- and offshore. Large-scale CCS therefore requires the development of a transport infrastructure on a scale matched only by that of the current hydrocarbon infrastructure. As this will lead to greatly reduced long-term costs, early strategic planning is vital – including the development of clusters and over-sized pipelines – with any cross-border restrictions removed.

A risk-reward mechanism is needed to realise the significant aquifer potential for CO2 storage

Location and type of storage site, reservoir capacity and quality are the main determinants for the costs of CO2 storage: onshore is cheaper than offshore; depleted oil and gas fields (DOGF) are cheaper than deep saline aquifers (SA); larger reservoirs are cheaper than smaller ones; high injectivity is cheaper than poor injectivity. Given the large variation in storage costs (up to a factor of 10) and the risk of investing in the exploration of SA that are ultimately found to be unsuitable, a risk-reward mechanism is needed to realise their significant potential and ensure sufficient storage capacity is available – in the time frame needed.

CCS requires a secure environment for long-term investment

Based on current trajectories, the price of Emission Unit Allowances (EUAs) under the EU Emissions Trading System will not, initially, be a sufficient driver for investment after the first generation of CCS demonstration projects is built (2015-2020). Enabling policies are therefore required in the intermediate period – after the technology is commercially proven, but before the EUA price has increased sufficiently to allow full commercial operation. The goal: to make new-build power generation with CCS more attractive to investors than without it.

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Disclaimer

The content within the Global CCS Institute Publications, Reports and Research Library is provided for information purposes only. We make every effort and take reasonable care to keep the content of this section up-to-date and error-free. However, we make no claim as to its accuracy, currency or reliability.

Content and material featured within this section of our website includes reports and research published by third parties. The content and material may include opinions and recommendations of third parties that do not reflect those held by the Global CCS Institute.

Post 2020, CCS will be competitive with other low-carbon energy technologies
Post 2020, CCS will be competitive with other low-carbon energy technologies

15th July 2011

Topic(s): Economics, Carbon capture, use and storage (CCUS)

The companies, scientists, academics and environmental NGOs that together make up the Zero Emissions Platform (ZEP) have undertaken a ground-breaking study into the costs of CCS based on new data provided exclusively by ZEP member organisations on existing pilot and planned demonstration projects. Costs for different CCS options were determined using data for postcombustion, pre-combustion and oxy-fuel capture technologies, pipeline and shipping transport and  storage in on and offshore depleted oil and gas fields and deep saline aquifers.  This report summarises the key conclusions of the study.

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Disclaimer

The content within the Global CCS Institute Publications, Reports and Research Library is provided for information purposes only. We make every effort and take reasonable care to keep the content of this section up-to-date and error-free. However, we make no claim as to its accuracy, currency or reliability.

Content and material featured within this section of our website includes reports and research published by third parties. The content and material may include opinions and recommendations of third parties that do not reflect those held by the Global CCS Institute.

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