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Our publications, reports and research library hosts over 500 specialist reports and research papers on all topics associated with CCS.

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Technology roadmap: carbon capture and storage
Technology roadmap: carbon capture and storage

11th July 2013

Organisation(s): International Energy Agency (IEA)

Topic(s): Carbon capture, Use and storage (CCUS)

This roadmap is an update of the 2009 IEA CCS Technology Roadmap. The energy landscape has shifted between 2009 and 2013 and new insights into the challenges and needs of CCS have been learned. This CCS roadmap aims at assisting governments and industry in integrating CCS in their emissions reduction strategies and in creating the conditions for scaled-up deployment of all three components of the CCS chain: CO2 capture, transport and storage. To get us onto the right pathway, this roadmap highlights seven key actions needed in the next seven years to create a solid foundation for deployment of CCS starting by 2020. These near-term actions are directly relevant for government and industry decision-makers today. Perhaps the most critical task is to create business cases for the uptake of CCS. This will require decisive action from governments, but also continued engagement of the industry in a long-term perspective.

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IEAテクノロジー・ロードマップ
IEAテクノロジー・ロードマップ

11th July 2013

Organisation(s): International Energy Agency (IEA)

Topic(s): Carbon capture, Use and storage (CCUS)

このロードマップは、2009年のIEAのCCS技術ロードマップ更新ですエネルギー地形は、2009年2013年の間にシフトしており、課題とCCSのニーズに新たな洞察学習されている CO2回収·輸送·貯蔵:このCCSロードマップは、排出量削減戦略におけるCCSの統合にとCCSチェーンのすべての3つの成分のスケールアップの展開のための条件を作成する際に、政府や産業界を支援することを目的としている。の経路上に私たちを取得するには、このロードマップは、2020年までのCCSの出発を展開するための強固な基盤を作成するために、次の7年間に必要な7つのアクションを強調しています。これらの短期的なアクションは、今日、政府や業界の意思決定者のために直接関連していますおそらく最も重要なタスクは、CCSの取り込みのためのビジネスケースを作成することですこれは政府の断固とした行動を必要とするだけでなく、長期的な視点業界関与を継続します

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技术路线图 二氧化碳捕集与封存技术在工业中的应用
技术路线图 二氧化碳捕集与封存技术在工业中的应用

22nd February 2013

Organisation(s): International Energy Agency (IEA), United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

Topic(s): Carbon capture, Use and storage (CCUS)

Nearly one-third of global energy and one-quarter of worldwide carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are attributable to industrial activities that are not in the power generation sector. If climate change is to be successfully tackled, these sectors will need to transform the way they use energy and significantly reduce their CO2 emissions. In sectors such as iron and steel, oil refining, cement and chemicals and petrochemicals, emission can be reduced through efficiency improvements and integration of low carbon energy sources. Crucially, however, carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been identified as the only large-scale mitigation option available that can deliver the additional CO2 emissions reductions that would be necessary to meet the climate goals in 2050.
  This roadmap shows that CCS is a key cost-effective option for reducing CO2 emissions in large energy-intensive industries. In fact, much of the promising short-term potential for CCS globally lies not in the power sector but in industrial activities that currently vent highly pure streams of CO2. These activities include hydrogen production for fertilisers or fuel, bioethanol production and natural gas sweetening. Most studies on the potential application of CCS have focused on the power sector, however, even though all existing operational large-scale demonstrations of CCS are in industrial applications. In the longer-term, half of the global economic deployment for CCS by 2050 is shown to be in industrial applications. In certain sectors CCS is shown to be of particular relevance in developing countries, where it could be a highly cost-competitive emissions abatement option, even in the near term.  
This technology roadmap builds on the initial IEA roadmap on CCS and also the technology roadmap for the cement sector developed by the IEA and the Cement Sustainability Initiative of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development. It paves the way for low-carbon industrial growth in developed and developing countries by providing a vision of CCS in industrial applications up to 2050.

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There are more than 100 papers in the public domain on the costs of CCS. However, there are significant differences in the methods employed by various organizations to estimate the cost of CCS systems for fossil fuel power plants. Many of these differences were discussed at a series of workshops, commencing in 2011, through which an international group of experts from industrial firms, government agencies, universities, and environmental organizations met to share information and perspectives on CCS costs for electric power plants.

Such differences often are not readily apparent in publicly reported CCS cost estimates. As a consequence, there is a significant degree of misunderstanding, confusion, and misrepresentation of CCS cost information, especially among audiences not familiar with the details of CCS costing.

A key recommendation of the first workshop was that a task force be formed to develop guidelines and recommendations for a costing method and nomenclature that could be broadly adopted to produce more consistent and transparent cost estimates for CCS applied to electric power plants.

Commencing in late 2011, and Chaired by Ed Rubin, task force members George Booras (EPRI), John Davison (IEAGHG), Clas Ekstrom (Vattenfall), Mike Matuszewski (USDOE/NETL), Sean McCoy (IEA) and Chris Short (Global CCS Institute) prepared a White Paper outlining both differences that exist in many current studies as well as providing guidelines and procedures for CCS costing, encompassing the full chain of CCS.

The aim of the work is not to suggest or recommend a uniform set of assumptions or premises for CCS cost estimates. There are good reasons why the cost of a given technology may vary from one situation to another and from one location to another. Rather, the sole objective is to help all parties with an interest or stake in CCS costing do a better job by addressing the major deficiencies in current costing methods, especially differences in the items included in a cost analysis.

The report addresses six major topics relevant to CCS costs

  • defining project scope and design
  • defining nomenclature and cost categories for CCS cost estimates
  • quantifying elements of CCS cost
  • defining financial structure and economic assumptions
  • calculating the costs of electricity and CO2 avoided
  • guidelines for CCS cost reporting

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Tracking progress in carbon capture and storage: International Energy Agency/Global CCS Institute report to the third Clean Energy Ministerial
Tracking progress in carbon capture and storage: International Energy Agency/Global CCS Institute report to the third Clean Energy Ministerial

27th April 2012

Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute, International Energy Agency (IEA)

Topic(s): Carbon capture, Law and regulation, Policy, Use and storage (CCUS)

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is recognised as being amongst the technologies with the greatest potential for achieving carbon dioxide emissions savings. In support of advancing global efforts to demonstrate and deploy large-scale integrated CCS projects, the Carbon Capture, Use and Storage Action Group (CCUS AG) presented seven substantive recommendations to Energy Ministers at the second Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM 2, Abu Dhabi, April 2011). The recommendations set out key actions in CCS financing, industrial applications, CO2 storage, regulation and knowledge sharing, aimed at closing the gap between current CCS development and deployment, and the progress required to achieve the level of ambition associated with CCS technologies.

This report provides an update of progress made by the twelve CCUS AG Governments that agreed to advance progress against the 2011 recommendations by the third CEM in London, April 2012 (CEM 3).

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Technology roadmap:  carbon capture and storage in industrial applications
Technology roadmap: carbon capture and storage in industrial applications

19th September 2011

Organisation(s): International Energy Agency (IEA), United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

Topic(s): Carbon capture, Use and storage (CCUS)

Developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications, paves the way for low-carbon industrial growth in developed and developing countries by providing a vision of industrial CCS up to 2050. Its insights will help policy makers evaluate the benefits of CCS technology and help them make informed decisions. It also offers investors a much-needed assessment of the potential for CCS in industry, an application that has been neglected.

The report focuses on five main industrial applications:

  • high-purity CO2 sources;
  • biomass conversion;
  • cement;
  • iron and steel; and
  • refineries.

Implementing CCS in industrial sectors still has many barriers, which need to be overcome. Specific technology gaps need to be bridged, incentive policy frameworks need to be tailored to each sector according to technology maturity, with special emphasis on making sufficient capital available in developing countries, capacity building and education programs need to be developed and international collaboration expanded and strengthened.

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Carbon capture and storage: Legal and regulatory review
Carbon capture and storage: Legal and regulatory review

30th May 2011

Organisation(s): International Energy Agency (IEA)

Topic(s): Carbon capture, Law and regulation, Policy, Use and storage (CCUS)

The International Energy Agency (IEA) considers carbon capture and storage (CCS) a crucial part of worldwide efforts to limit global warming by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The IEA has estimated that the broad deployment of low-carbon energy technologies could reduce projected 2050 emissions to half 2005 levels – and that CCS could contribute about one-fifth of those reductions. Reaching that goal, however, would require around 100 CCS projects to be implemented by 2020 and over 3000 by 2050.

The IEA's CCS Review collates contributions by national and regional governments, as well as leading organisations engaged in CCS regulatory activities. Produced bi-annually, the CCS Review serves as a resource for regulators and other stakeholders involved in developing CCS legal and regulatory frameworks worldwide.

Each contribution provides a short summary of recent and anticipated CCS regulatory developments within a given country, region or by a specific organisation. Each edition of the CCS Review will also highlight a particular regulatory theme and include a brief IEA analysis of key advances and trends.

  • The first edition was released on 22 October 2010 and focuses on CCS legal and regulatory matters.
  • The second edition was released on 25 May 2011 and focuses on long-term liability for stored CO2.

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技術ロードマップ: 産業応用におけるCO2回収貯留
技術ロードマップ: 産業応用におけるCO2回収貯留

1st January 2011

Organisation(s): International Energy Agency (IEA), United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

Topic(s): Carbon capture, Use and storage (CCUS)

この意欲的な目標を達成するため、IEAは一連の地球規模の技術ロードマップ策定作業に着手した。本ロードマップによって政府、産業界及び金融機関は共同して、必要な手段を確認し、また必要とされる技術の開発及び取得を加速するために対策を実施することが可能となる。 

本ロードマップの基本的目的は、とりわけ途上国及び体制移行国を対象に含めることによって、産業応用の低炭素技術の普及を地球規模で推進することである。 
本ロードマップは、電力、工業及び燃料転換部門全般におけるCCSに関して必要な行動及びマイルストーンについて説明している、IEAによるCCSに関する最初のロードマップ(IEA、2009)に基づいて作成されたものである。また、IEA及び持続可能な発展のための世界経済人会議セメント産業部会によって策定された、セメント部門のための技術ロードマップ(IEA/WBCSD、2009)にも基づいている。

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IEA/CSLF report to the Muskoka 2010 G8 Summit. Carbon capture and storage: progress and next steps
IEA/CSLF report to the Muskoka 2010 G8 Summit. Carbon capture and storage: progress and next steps

14th June 2010

Organisation(s): Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF), Global CCS Institute, International Energy Agency (IEA)

Topic(s): Carbon capture, Law and regulation, Policy, Use and storage (CCUS)

Two years after the G8 leaders commitment to the broad deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) by 2020, significant progress has been made towards commercialisation of CCS technologies. Yet the 2008 Hokkaido G8 recommendation to launch 20 large-scale CCS demonstration projects by 2010 remains a challenge and will require that governments and industry accelerate the pace toward achieving this critical goal. This is one of the main findings of a new report by the International Energy Agency (IEA), the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF), and the Global CCS Institute, to be presented to G8 leaders at their June Summit in Muskoka, Canada.

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Carbon capture and storage in the CDM
Carbon capture and storage in the CDM

1st December 2007

Organisation(s): International Energy Agency (IEA)

Topic(s): Carbon capture, Use and storage (CCUS)

The possible inclusion of CCS projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) raises a number of issues, including how to deal with potential leaks of CO2 and associated permanence and liability issues, what an appropriate project boundary is, how to deal with CDM-“leakage” (i.e. emissions resulting from the project activity beyond its boundaries) and what the possible impact of including CCS would be on the broad CDM  portfolio. This paper assesses these issues.

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