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The western wind and solar integration study phase 2
1st September 2013
This report describes the findings of a National Renewable Energy Laboratory study into the costs and emissions impacts of the addition of solar and wind power to a predominately fossil-fuelled electricity grid. The study found that the impact of 33% wind and solar penetration on system operations is to increase cycling costs but also to displace annual fuel costs by approximately $7 billion. The study also found that up to 33% wind and solar energy penetration in the United States’ portion of the Western grid avoids 29%–34% carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions throughout the western grid.
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