Publications, Reports & Research
Our publications, reports and research library hosts over 500 specialist reports and research papers on all topics associated with CCS.
Trailblazerは、米国テキサス州Nolan郡Sweetwaterの東約9マイルに位置する、建設中の超臨界微粉炭火力（PC: Pulverized coal）発電所である。Trailblazerは、初期設計に商用規模の燃焼後回収式CO2回収（CC: Carbon dioxide capture）プラントを取り入れて建設される米国初の石炭火力発電所となる見込みである。本プロジェクトは本来なら大気中に排出されるはずのCO2の85～90%を回収する設計となっている。本発電所は総出力760MW（夏季のCCプラント稼働時の環境温度下）を発電する計画である。
本プロジェクトの目的は、来るべき炭素規制に関連した潜在的な先行的クレジットの活用、回収したCO2のPermian Basinにおける石油増進回収（EOR: Enhanced oil recovery）への有効利用及び石炭利用と国内石油生産を通じた米国のエネルギー安全保障への貢献である。
プロジェクトの開発推進に当たり、Tenaska社は、プロジェクトの設計・調達・建設（EPC: Engineering, construction and procurement）業者及びCC技術提供者の選定のため、それぞれの競争入札手続きを実施した。これらの過程を経て、Tenaska社は、Econamin FG+（EFG+） CO2回収技術の提供を含むEPC業者及び技術提供者双方の役割を担う業者にFluor Enterprises社を選定した。
Tenaska社は、CCプラントに関する基本設計（FEED: Front-end engineering and design）調査を実施するためFluor社と契約した。開発途上のこの産業においては、サプライヤーに大規模な商用CCプラントに関する経験がないことから、FEED調査が不可欠である。FEED調査の主な目的は、提示された確定価格及び商用稼動時の性能保証を裏付けるため、プロジェクトについての十分な技術的な定義（設計及び計画作業に係る労力全体の名目上15～20%を必要とする）を行うことである。
在促进项目开发上，Tenaska开展了各自的竞争和排序流程以选择项目EPC合同者和碳捕集技术提供者。通过这些流程，Tenaska选定了Flour Enterprises为两个方面的供应商，其中包括供应EFG+ 二氧化碳捕集技术。
Tenaska, in its role as developer, will be responsible for obtaining financing for the project. Tenaska has raised approximately US$11.4 billion in aggregate financing, including US$4.7 billion in bank facilities, US$3.0 billion in capital market transactions and US$3.7 billion in corporate facilities.
This report discusses the issues associated with financing the Trailblazer project. Although a detailed discussion of the revenue gap currently facing the project was provided in the Global CCS Institute report entitled Bridging the Commercial Gap for Carbon Capture and Storage dated July 2011, a recap will be provided in this report. This report also discusses the financing considerations this and other large carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects will face, as well as factors that can mitigate financing risks. Finally, the report outlines Tenaska’s plan for financing the project.
The Tenaska Trailblazer Energy Center is expected to be the first new-build coal plant in the United States to incorporate a commercial-scale carbon dioxide capture plant into the initial design. The project is designed to capture 85 to 90 per cent of the CO2 that otherwise would be emitted into the atmosphere.
The CO2 captured from the project will be sold into the Permian Basin CO2 market in West Texas, where it will be used in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and ultimately stored permanently underground. The Trailblazer project will consist of both a state-of-the-art pulverized coal facility (PC Plant) and a carbon capture facility (CC Plant).
The project is located in a semi-arid area, with annual rainfall averaging about 22 inches (56 centimeters). As such, very early in the project’s development Tenaska explored several cooling options, including air cooling, full wet cooling and partial wet cooling (hybrid cooling). Through this high-level analysis and due to water rights restrictions -- and for other strategic reasons -- Tenaska assumed that Trailblazer would need to employ air cooling in order to reduce the PC Plant’s water usage. This report describes the process used to determine the best alternative for the project’s cooling systems.
Tenaska share their analysis of the commercial market factors which drive their project. This project plans to sell electricity into the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) energy market, capture over five million tonnes of CO2 per year, and sell it into the Permian Basin Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) market both of which have large unmet demand. This report discusses the economic realities facing the Trailblazer Project to incorporate a commercial-scale carbon dioxide capture plant into its initial design. It reviews the markets for both electricity and carbon dioxide, and discusses the governmental support that may be needed to bridge the gap between the Project’s likely costs and revenues.
The development of a complex project such as the Trailblazer project requires the selection, relationship management and coordination of a diverse consortium, including: developers, equity partners, engineering, procurement and construction contractors, operations and maintenance contractors, fuel suppliers, fuel transporters, water suppliers, power purchaser, carbon dioxide purchaser, Local, State and Federal Governments and lenders. The report discusses the factors considered in Tenaska’s approach to building and managing the consortium required to develop, construct and operate the project.
The steam turbine configuration and sizing is a critical part of the design basis for the coal fired power plant, and in particular with plans for incorporating carbon capture and storage. This report, undertaken by Tenaska as part of its plant design work for the Trailblazer project, examined plant operating modes, part load operation, overall operability and ultimately the profitability of the plant given the markets for power and CO2 in Texas. Since the carbon capture process utilises approximately 30 per cent of the steam energy generated in the boiler, the key question addressed is should the steam turbine be sized for 70 per cent flow left when the carbon capture plant is running, or the full steam flow to generate more power when the carbon capture plant is off-line.
Tenaska worked with a number of major steam turbine generator (STG) manufacturers to develop steam/water cycles for the Project that would allow either the simultaneous generation of power and provision of steam for the flue gas carbon capture process, or operation power generation only mode with no steam to the carbon capture process. Project developers and technical staff may benefit from the lessons learnt from the Trailblazer project in this study.
While the Trailblazer project located nearby the Permian Basin in West Texas intends to sell its CO2 for use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR), Tenaska believed it was prudent to understand the potential for geologically sequestering CO2 without concurrent EOR near the Project site as an alternative to the base case. This desktop study was undertaken to examine the various subsurface options for the Project site.
This report describes how the Project gathered and analysed information on CO2 sequestration in deep saline formations near the Trailblazer site.