Publications, Reports & Research
Our publications, reports and research library hosts over 500 specialist reports and research papers on all topics associated with CCS.
Demonstrating CO2 capture in the UK cement, chemicals, iron and steel and oil refining sectors by 2025: a techno-economic study
30th April 2014
In November 2013, the United Kingdom’s Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), and Department of Business Innovation & Skills (BIS) commissioned a team led by Element Energy, and comprising Carbon Counts, PSE, Imperial College and the University of Sheffield, to carry out a study of industrial CO2 capture for storage or utilisation.
The primary focus of this study is assessing the technical potential and cost effectiveness for retrofit deployment of different CO2 capture technologies to the UK’s existing largest (0.2-8 MtCO2/yr) sources of process CO2 emissions in the cement, chemicals, iron and steel, and oil refining sectors by 2025.
The United Kingdom’s Department of Energy and Climate Change’s (DECC) Energy Trends includes statistical information on energy as a whole and by individual fuels, presented chiefly in charts and tables. This edition covers the fourth quarter of 2013, and also 2013 as a whole - providing a comprehensive picture of energy production and use in the UK.
The main decarbonisation points for 2013:
- Low carbon electricity’s share of generation increased from 31 per cent in 2012 to 35 per cent in 2013, due to higher renewables and nuclear generation.
- Of electricity generated in 2013, coal accounted for 36 per cent (a fall of 3 percentage points on 2012) and gas 27 per cent (a fall of 1 percentage point on 2012), gas’ lowest share since 1996, due to high gas prices. Nuclear’s share increased by less than 1 percentage point on 2012 to 20 per cent of the total. Renewables’ share of generation increased by 4 percentage points on 2012 to a record 15 per cent.
- Renewable electricity generation was 52.8 TWh in 2013, an increase of 28 per cent on the 41.3 TWh in 2012, with wind generation up 40 per cent. Renewable electricity capacity was 19.4 GW at the end of 2013, a 25 per cent increase (3.9 GW) on a year earlier.
- Provisional estimates show that carbon dioxide emissions fell between 2012 and 2013; the key factor driving the change was a switch in electricity generation away from fossil fuels.
This United Kingdom Department of Energy & Climate Change (DECC) study examines local GHG emissions associated with shale gas exploration and production. The carbon footprint includes carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Methane has a global warming potential 25 times greater than CO2, based on a 100-year time horizon. It also studies the effect of shale gas use on overall GHG emissions rates and cumulative emissions. Comparisons are made between the emissions associated with the use of shale gas, conventional gas, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), and coal.
Electricity generation costs are a fundamental part of energy market analysis, and a good understanding of these costs is important when analysing and designing policy. The United Kingdom’s Department of Energy and Climate Change regularly updates estimates of the costs and technical specifications for different generation technologies used in its analysis. Cost data is broken down into detailed expenditure per MW capacity or MWh generation for the full lifetime of a plant including planning costs, construction costs, operating costs and eventual decommissioning costs.
The Energy Efficiency strategy sets the direction for energy efficiency policy for the coming decades in the United Kingdom.
This strategy describes the UK government’s ambition, the barriers they need to address, and the additional steps they are taking to stimulate the energy efficiency market. It shows how the government will act to connect finance with demand, encourage innovation, and make energy efficiency information more accessible to the consumer.
The onshore wind sector in the UK has grown significantly over the last decade and in particular over the last five years. Further increases are expected in onshore wind energy deployment over the course of the decade in order to meet the UK’s 2020 renewable energy commitments and longer-term energy security and low carbon goals.
The experience of many economies over the last few years demonstrates that the economic impact of onshore wind deployment can be significant in terms of direct, supply chain and wider economic effects. This report considers the scale of these effects in the UK to date and the potential contribution of the onshore wind sector to future economic growth in the period to 2020. The focus of the study is on the economic impacts of the commercial onshore wind sector.
This discussion paper presents a summary of the findings of Mott MacDonald’s energy economics team on the potential for cost reduction in CCS in the power sector in the UK. The paper is intended to stimulate further thinking, particularly through the CCS Cost Reduction Task Force. This paper identifies the main activities that could potentially drive a reduction in the cost of commercial scale CCS and estimate the scale of any potential cost reduction, focusing on the near to medium term. It comments on how CCS affects power generation costs, reviews how other studies have approached cost reduction and discusses bottom-up projections of the scope for cost reduction across the main technology routes.
This document outlines the United Kingdom’s plans to achieve decarbonisation within the framework of its energy policy: to make the transition to a low carbon economy while maintaining energy security, and minimising costs to consumers, particularly those in poorer households.
Under the UK Government’s CCS Demonstration Program, ScottishPower’s Longannet project and E.ON’s Kingsnorth project have been supported to deliver the front end engineering and design (FEED) stage of their project’s development. With these studies now finalised and an array of in-depth technical reports prepared, the reports have been made broadly available so that project developers and all key stakeholders involved in demonstrating CCS may learn and benefit from the practical experience and knowledge created from the two projects.
The FEED study reports from both supported projects may be accessed through devoted pages on the DECC website.
ScottishPower CCS Consortium FEED Study Report
This study details the key learning and knowledge generated by ScottishPower’s Carbon Capture and Storage Consortium (comprising ScottishPower, National Grid and Shell) for work undertaken during the Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) Programme.
It presents the outputs of the Consortium FEED study up to March 2011 for other project developers, governments and ad hoc groups as they seek to introduce Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies around the world.
The study findings include:
- materials from the programme schedules;
- detailed cost breakdown;
- details around organisation and management of designing an end-to-end CCS chain;
- details of operating an end-to-end CCS chain as a whole system and as individual elements;
- key decisions and design changes made during FEED to deliver the end-to-end CCS technology solution;
- health, safety and environmental information of delivering an end-to-end CCS chain;
- details of assessing and measuring the impact of design risks for large-scale CCS projects;
- details of work carried out during FEED to achieve the legal and regulatory requirements with European, UK and Scottish legislative frameworks;
- approach for stakeholder identification and profiling; and
- documented learnings from the supported FEED studies.
E.ON’s FEED Study
The findings are the result of the early stages of a front end engineering and design (FEED) study to add a post-combustion CCS facility to a new supercritical coal-fired power plant at Kingsnorth, UK.
The study findings include:
- design philosophy documents produced to ensure a common approach to the design of all aspects of the CCS project;
- the 'FEED stage Design Basis for CO2 Recovery Plant’ lists the design parameters relating to the capture plant site, the flue gas to be treated, the utilities available, the required life and availability of the plant, and other constraints to be complied with in the capture plant, dehydration and compression design;
- details of transportation and injection infrastructure requirements for the Kingsnorth CCS development;
- results of studies into the undersea storage CO2 reservoir in the Lower Bunter sandstone of the depleted Hewett natural gas field;
- Health and Safety Reports produced during the current FEED stage;
- environment and consents reports produced during the current FEED stage; and
- project management process outputs around controlling and reporting progress of the FEED studies.
Review of the generation costs and deployment potential of renewable electricity technologies in the UK
1st October 2011
Arup was appointed by the United Kingdom’s Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) in October 2010 to look at the deployment potential and generation costs of renewable electricity technologies in the UK up to 2030, taking into account sensitivities as to the range of cost inputs, investor behaviour and barriers to deployment. Arup was supported on cost data gathering exercises for some technologies by Ernst and Young (E&Y).
In July 2010, the Government published its 2050 Pathways Analysis work. The analysis explored a range of potential pathways, choices and trade-offs for achieving long-term greenhouse gas emissions reduction target and ensuring the UK’s energy needs are met.
The 2050 Pathways Analysis was published as a Call for Evidence, running from 27th July to 5th October 2010. The questions on which evidence was sought are set out in Annex A. The United Kingdom’s Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) published the analysis as a Call for Evidence in order to test with a wider range of experts and stakeholders whether the assumptions and data underpinning the model were considered to be sound and based on the best available evidence.
The response to the Call for Evidence was very positive. The overwhelming opinion was that the 2050 Pathways Analysis was a valuable tool and a useful contribution to the debate about the United Kingdom’s energy future.
This report sets out how DECC revised the model, and the evidence and assumptions that underlie the changes they made (see Part 2A).