Publications, Reports & Research
Our publications, reports and research library hosts over 500 specialist reports and research papers on all topics associated with CCS.
The Global CCS Institute is pleased to announce the release of our Global Status of CCS: 2014 report.
The report provides a detailed overview of the current status of large-scale CCS projects worldwide, finding that 2014 has been a pivotal year for CCS, which is now a reality in the power industry.
For the first time, the report introduces and provides links to project descriptions for around 40 lesser scale ‘notable’ CCS projects. The 2014 report focuses on a number of ‘notable’ projects in Japan.
The Global Status of CCS: 2014 report provides a comprehensive overview of global and regional developments in CCS and what is required to support global climate mitigation efforts. Providing a number of key recommendations for decision makers, The Global Status of CCS: 2014 report is an important reference guide for industry, government, research bodies and the broader community.
The Global Status of CCS: 2014 Summary Report provides an executive overview of the key findings and recommendations contained in the Institute’s Global Status of CCS: 2014 report.
The Supplementary Information presentation package includes chart materials not included in the Global Status of CCS: 2014 report. This material provides additional detail on the status of large-scale CCS projects globally. When used in conjunction with previous status reports, it provides researchers with access to the world’s most comprehensive historical data set on large-scale CCS projects.
This Annual Review covers the Institute’s work achievements for July 2013 - June 2014. Showcasing global and regional achievements, it highlights the Institute’s work in progressing three key objectives:
- authoritative knowledge sharing
- fact-based, influential advice and advocacy, and
- creation of favourable conditions to implement CCS.
Legal liability issues remain critically important for the commercial development of carbon capture and storage (CCS). This co-authored report by Global CCS Institute and University College London largely focusses on the storage aspect of the CCS process. Storage is where the most distinctive liability challenges lie, largely due to the long time-scales involved.
The authors address three types of legal liability:
- Civil liability where third parties who have suffered harm seek compensation or a court order.
- Administrative liability where authorities are given powers to serve some form of enforcement or clean-up order.
- Emissions trading liability where an emissions trading regime provides a benefit for CO2 storage and an accounting mechanism is in place should there be subsequent leakage.
This submission by the Global Carbon Capture and Storage Institute (the Institute) is in response to the European Commission’s (EC) request for stakeholders to participate in the review of the application of the EU Directive 2009/31/EC (CCS Directive) on the geological storage of CO2 and to provide an assessment of the state of CCS deployment and enabling policy in Europe.
- As of February 2014 there are 21 large-scale projects in operation or construction - a 50% increase since 2011. These have the capacity to capture up to 40 million tonnes of CO2 per annum, equivalent to 8 million cars being taken off the road.
- Six projects, with a combined capture capacity of 10 million tonnes of CO2 per annum, are in advanced stages of development planning and may take a final investment decision during 2014.
- The world’s first two power sector projects with CCS will begin operation in North America in 2014.
- The Middle East has the world’s first large-scale CCS project in the iron and steel sector move into construction.
- China has doubled the number of CCS projects since 2011 with 12 large-scale CCS projects.
A survey by the International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG) finds that the majority of respondents in the cement industry think that CCS is relevant to them and are aware of research projects, with half involved in CCS activities. The survey and subsequent report were part of the IEAGHG’s research into the cement industry which is one of the largest industrial emitters of greenhouse gas, accounting for around 5% globally.
Sponsored by the Global CCS Institute, this independent report presents important findings to help the industry reduce emissions using CCS. The report establishes a range of techniques to reduce CO2 emissions from cement production along with increased energy efficiency. It finds the preferred techniques for capturing CO2 in cement plants are oxyfuel and post combustion capture. While oxyfuel is in general expected to have a lower energy consumption and costs than post combustion capture using liquid solvent scrubbing, it found disadvantages with pre combustion capture. Finally, the report provides an update on the legal and economic environment for CO2 related policies and regulations facing the industry.
A diverse group of organisations from industry, government, and the environmental community jointly sponsored Industrial Economics (IEc), an expert in environmental economics and natural resource damage assessment, to develop and test a model approach for valuing the economic damages arising from a well-sited and well-managed CCS project. These damages included environmental and human health impacts arising from a range of potential events such as pipeline ruptures and subsurface leakage. They do not address potential impacts from facility construction or routine operation, nor do they address potential impacts to workers, business interruption, facility repair or similar ‘private’ costs internal to the operator. The model was successfully developed and applied to a ‘realistic’ project based on the publicly available risk assessment for a site from the FutureGen 1.0 site selection process. The project was planned to inject 50 million metric tons of CO2 over 50 years and to have a 50 year post-injection period (for a 100-year analysis period).
This site-specific application of the model showed that the ‘most likely’ (50th percentile) estimated damages arising from CO2 totalled approximately $7.3 million and ‘upper end’ (95th percentile) estimated damages totalled approximately $16.9 million. On a per metric ton basis, these results translate into ‘most likely’ (50th percentile) estimated damages of $0.15 per metric ton and ‘upper end’ (95th percentile) estimated damages of $0.34 per metric ton. When combined, the estimated damages for CO2 and H2S were roughly 10-15 per cent higher.
It is important to note that the range of damage estimates is highly sensitive to site-specific data. The sponsor group concludes that the tools exist to estimate prospective financial damages. Further, the sponsor group has developed insight into the magnitude and timing of dollar amounts that are likely to be at risk and the conditions under which they may be at risk at a well-selected and well-managed CCS project. This analytic approach is based on generally accepted practices within the financial and insurance industries, and can be applied, with adjustment for location, to CCS projects around the world.