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Publications, Reports & Research

Our publications, reports and research library hosts over 500 specialist reports and research papers on all topics associated with CCS.

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Probabilistic approach to CO2 plume mapping for prospective storage sites: The CarbonNet experience
Probabilistic approach to CO2 plume mapping for prospective storage sites: The CarbonNet experience

30th November 2016

Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute, Victorian Government

Topic(s): CO2 storage

The Global CCS Institute is supporting the development of the CarbonNet Project through a series of reports and enable the sharing of knowledge throughout its development. The CarbonNet Project is in its feasibility phase and planning the development of a hub-based network that will centre on a large capacity pipeline to deep, secure storage sites, offshore Victoria, Australia. The Project is planning to store up to 125 million tonnes over 25 years in the Gippsland Basin.

The Gippsland Basin holds world class geologic formations for CO2 storage with multiple 100-150m thick, multi-Darcy, clean quartz-dominated sands, overlain by thick caprocks. The ideal geologic conditions means that the CO2 will be mobile and enable accurate plume prediction modelling which is critical during this phase of CarbonNet's site characterisation. Moreover, in Australia storage regulations require plume path predictions with more than 10 per cent probability, that is 90% confidence of the CO2 plume's movement throughout the project’s lifecycle. Because of the petroleum industry’s decades of experience in modelling and probabilistic analysis, CarbonNet has been able to adapt this expertise for CO2 storage modelling in the Gippsland Basin.

The modelling focussed on a large anticlinal structure in the near shore Gippsland Basin, with an injection point down dip from the crest of the structure. The modelling and probabilistic analysis found that the variations in input data for porosity, permeability and residual gas saturation strongly affect the horizontal and lateral movement of the plume in the formations. The simulation modelling was completed over seven time frames from 10 years through to 300 years after injection commences. The analysis found that after the injection of 125 million tonnes, the CO2 plume migrated into the anticlinal structure but never moved outside the structure. CarbonNet's CO2 plume modelling methodology enables a quantified plume path uncertainty analysis both laterally (i.e. map view) and vertical extent (cross-section), offering 3D understanding of plume containment. This report confirms that containment can be demonstrated with an appropriate high level of regulatory and public confidence.

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GipNet – Baseline environmental data gathering and measurement technology validation for nearshore marine Carbon Storage
GipNet – Baseline environmental data gathering and measurement technology validation for nearshore marine Carbon Storage

22nd August 2016

Organisation(s): Department of Economic Development, Global CCS Institute, Jobs, Transport and Resources, Victorian Government

Topic(s): CO2 storage, CO2 transport

The Global CCS Institute is supporting the CarbonNet Project through the development of a series of knowledge share reports. The CarbonNet Project has completed its feasibility phase investigating the development of a hub-based network that will centre on a large capacity pipeline transporting CO2 to secure subsurface offshore storage sites, in Victoria, Australia. The Project's storage sites, for which permits have been obtained, have the capacity to store up to 5 million tonnes pa over 25 years in the nearshore shallow marine environment of the Gippsland Basin.
 
The measurement, monitoring, and verification (MMV) of the CO2 plume will be a standard procedure during the operation of any CCS project. Before monitoring of the plume commences, the natural environment prior to injection must be understood. Often this is achieved through baseline monitoring and requires the validation of techniques for the particular context. Baseline monitoring predominantly will focus on establishing what the conditions are like in the storage complex prior to injection. But the monitoring can also extend to measuring the natural variability of CO2 on the surface and near-surface around the storage site and recording the background geological conditions (eg. seismicity). Given the long time frames and normal variation in environmental and operating conditions during the lifespan of a CCS MMV program, it is critical that the technologies selected meet future operating requirements including regulatory requirements and stakeholder expectations.
 
This report reviews the practicalities of establishing three baseline measurement networks that span different aspects of the Gippsland nearshore environment:
•Seismicity,
•Atmospheric conditions, and
•Seafloor and water column conditions.
 
These networks will be deployed through the GipNet Program. The purpose of the Program is to validate thresholds for detection in the local environment, i.e. the nearshore shallow marine area in which CarbonNet's storage sites are located. This area is similar in many respects to other prospective storage basins globally. If successful the technologies could be used to undertake pre-injection baseline measurements and may form a component of the MMV program for the CarbonNet Project. The report details a five-year program, including the proposed technologies to be used and outlines the advantages and limitations of each technology. Importantly, the report describes the potential for the technology to determine whether stored CO2 is behaving as expected; this is a critical requirement for stakeholder assurance.

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