Publications, Reports & Research
Our publications, reports and research library hosts over 500 specialist reports and research papers on all topics associated with CCS.
CO2 capture and storage in Portugal: a bridge to a low carbon economy
1st April 2015
This report evaluates the role the CCS technology could play in the Portuguese energy and industry system as a mitigation option to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions. The cost effectiveness of its deployment, and the risks and additional benefits it may provide for economic development are also analysed.
The partners of the CCS-PT: Perspectives for capture and sequestration of CO2 in Portugal project authored this report:
- CENSE Research Group, FCT - Universidade Nova de Lisboa
- CGE Research Group, Universidade de Évora
- Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia
- REN – Rede Eléctrica Nacional, S.A.
- Bellona Foundation
The Global CCS Institute supplied financial and technical contributions.
Sumário (Portuguese Summary)
O presente relatório avalia o papel que a tecnologia de CAC poderá desempenhar no sistema energético e industrial Português para atingir reduções significativas de emissões de GEE. São analisadas as condições que determinam o seu custo-eficácia, e os riscos e benefícios adicionais.
Global CCS Institute submission to: the European Commission’s consultation on revision of the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) Directive
31st March 2015
The European Council has concluded that 400 million allowances in the period 2021 to 2030 should be dedicated under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) to setting up an innovation fund to support demonstration projects of carbon capture and storage (CCS), in addition to other low carbon technologies.
To make this fund operational, a legal basis has to be created in the EU ETS Directive. In this submission the Global CCS Institute sets out its views on the innovation fund in response to the European Commission’s request for stakeholders to participate in the public consultation on the revision of the ETS Directive (established by Directive 2003/87/EC).
Development of an aqueous ammonia based PCC technology for Australian conditions: process modelling of combined SO2 and CO2 capture using aqueous ammonia
25th March 2015
This research project focuses on the development of the advanced aqueous ammonia based post combustion capture (PCC) technology. Two years into the project a novel process was proposed integrating CO2 and SO2 removal, flue gas cooling and ammonia recycle. Under the typical flue gas conditions, the proposed process has a SO2 removal efficiency of over 99.9% and ammonia reuse efficiency of 99.9%, which was confirmed by the experimental results. A rate based model was also developed for the aqueous ammonia based CO2 capture process and validated using the results from Munmorah Power Station pilot plant trials.
The Supplementary Information presentation package includes chart materials not included in the Global Status of CCS: 2014 report. This material provides additional detail on the status of large-scale CCS projects globally. When used in conjunction with previous status reports, it provides researchers with access to the world’s most comprehensive historical data set on large-scale CCS projects.
The Global Status of CCS: 2014 Summary Report provides an executive overview of the key findings and recommendations contained in the Institute’s Global Status of CCS: 2014 report.
The Global CCS Institute is pleased to announce the release of our Global Status of CCS: 2014 report.
The report provides a detailed overview of the current status of large-scale CCS projects worldwide, finding that 2014 has been a pivotal year for CCS, which is now a reality in the power industry.
For the first time, the report introduces and provides links to project descriptions for around 40 lesser scale ‘notable’ CCS projects. The 2014 report focuses on a number of ‘notable’ projects in Japan.
The Global Status of CCS: 2014 report provides a comprehensive overview of global and regional developments in CCS and what is required to support global climate mitigation efforts. Providing a number of key recommendations for decision makers, The Global Status of CCS: 2014 report is an important reference guide for industry, government, research bodies and the broader community.
This Annual Review covers the Institute’s work achievements for July 2013 - June 2014. Showcasing global and regional achievements, it highlights the Institute’s work in progressing three key objectives:
- authoritative knowledge sharing
- fact-based, influential advice and advocacy, and
- creation of favourable conditions to implement CCS.
Legal liability issues remain critically important for the commercial development of carbon capture and storage (CCS). This co-authored report by Global CCS Institute and University College London largely focusses on the storage aspect of the CCS process. Storage is where the most distinctive liability challenges lie, largely due to the long time-scales involved.
The authors address three types of legal liability:
- Civil liability where third parties who have suffered harm seek compensation or a court order.
- Administrative liability where authorities are given powers to serve some form of enforcement or clean-up order.
- Emissions trading liability where an emissions trading regime provides a benefit for CO2 storage and an accounting mechanism is in place should there be subsequent leakage.
This submission by the Global Carbon Capture and Storage Institute (the Institute) is in response to the European Commission’s (EC) request for stakeholders to participate in the review of the application of the EU Directive 2009/31/EC (CCS Directive) on the geological storage of CO2 and to provide an assessment of the state of CCS deployment and enabling policy in Europe.
- As of February 2014 there are 21 large-scale projects in operation or construction - a 50% increase since 2011. These have the capacity to capture up to 40 million tonnes of CO2 per annum, equivalent to 8 million cars being taken off the road.
- Six projects, with a combined capture capacity of 10 million tonnes of CO2 per annum, are in advanced stages of development planning and may take a final investment decision during 2014.
- The world’s first two power sector projects with CCS will begin operation in North America in 2014.
- The Middle East has the world’s first large-scale CCS project in the iron and steel sector move into construction.
- China has doubled the number of CCS projects since 2011 with 12 large-scale CCS projects.
The aim of this study is to collate information from the public domain on existing CO2 pipelines into a comprehensive reference document. Other objectives are to discuss the similarities and differences between CO2 and other, specifically natural gas, pipelines and to provide an overview. The overall lessons learned from this study should support project developers, decision makers, regulators and governmental bodies who do not deal with engineering calculations and cost estimates on a regular basis.
Based on a wide range of interviews and literature, Ecofys and SNC Lavalin have gathered detailed information on 29 CO2 pipeline projects (out of more than 80 worldwide). This is now accessible as an interactive mapping tool.
A survey by the International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG) finds that the majority of respondents in the cement industry think that CCS is relevant to them and are aware of research projects, with half involved in CCS activities. The survey and subsequent report were part of the IEAGHG’s research into the cement industry which is one of the largest industrial emitters of greenhouse gas, accounting for around 5% globally.
Sponsored by the Global CCS Institute, this independent report presents important findings to help the industry reduce emissions using CCS. The report establishes a range of techniques to reduce CO2 emissions from cement production along with increased energy efficiency. It finds the preferred techniques for capturing CO2 in cement plants are oxyfuel and post combustion capture. While oxyfuel is in general expected to have a lower energy consumption and costs than post combustion capture using liquid solvent scrubbing, it found disadvantages with pre combustion capture. Finally, the report provides an update on the legal and economic environment for CO2 related policies and regulations facing the industry.