Publications, Reports & Research
Our publications, reports and research library hosts over 500 specialist reports and research papers on all topics associated with CCS.
Emissions of greenhouse gases are expected to cause climate change. The main greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide (CO2) and the major source of it is the combustion of fossil fuels to supply energy. Emissions can be reduced by a variety of measures, such as improving energy efficiency and developing alternative energy sources, like wind and solar power. However, a rapid move away from fossil fuels is unlikely as energy supply infrastructure has a long lifetime, and such a move could destabilise economies.
Another way to reduce emissions is to capture the CO2 that is released from fossil fuel-fired power plants and store it underground. This is the focus of this report, as power generation accounts for about one-third of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use. The current leading technologies for power generation are pulverised fuel (PF) combustion steam cycles and natural gas combined cycles (NGCC). The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEA GHG) has assessed the performance and costs of these power plants, both with and without the capture of CO2. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) for the gasification of coal, which was included in the assessment, may be a suitable technology from which to capture CO2. A number of criteria were specified for all the studies to enable the results to be compared in a meaningful manner. The main specifications are listed in the Annex at the end of the report.
An international regulatory framework for risk governance of carbon capture and storage
1st May 2007
Organisation(s): Center for International Climate and Environmental Research
CO2 capture and storage (CCS) in geological structures and its possible risks have been topics of extensive study in recent years. In contrast, the legal and regulatory structures necessary to support widespread capture and long-term, secure storage have received far less attention. This essay seeks to bridge this gap by building on existing CCS risk literature and outlining some of the key components of an international risk governance framework necessary for the widespread diffusion of CCS. The discussion is summarized by making preliminary recommendations on attributes that an effective regulatory regime for CCS should possess.
The Sleipner project is a commercial CO2 injection project and proved that CO2 capture and storage is a technically feasible and effective method for greenhouse mitigation. It further demonstrates that CO2 storage is both safe and has a low environmental impact. Monitoring is needed for a wide variety of purposes. Specifically, to ensure and document the injection process, verify the quantity of injected CO2 that has been stored by various mechanisms, demonstrate with appropriate monitoring techniques that CO2 remains contained in the intended storage formation(s). This is currently the principal method for assuring that the CO2 remains stored and that performance predictions can be verified.
This paper presents a high level view of the key policy options for regulating CO2 capture and storage (CCS) activities in the EU. Also outlined are some suggested issues and amendments to existing EU legislation that will be required in order to clarify their scope, confer their provisions or remove them as potential barriers.
This is a lengthy and detailed thesis including an introduction to both CCS and liability in the US, followed by a dissection of the different types of liability which may be relevant in this context including liability for induced seismicity, groundwater contamination, damage to human health or environment. Draws comparisons with liability for similar operations such as acid gas injection, natural gas storage and enhanced oil recovery using case studies. Concludes with 'lessons learned' and proposed liability scheme.
This article attempts to provide an update on recent developments in carbon capture and storage (CCS), with particular emphasis on the legal and regulatory provisions that will need to be in place under international, EU and UK law to accommodate the new technology and the risks of storing CO2 underground. This involves looking at how some of the recent developments link to the London Convention and its protocol, OSPAR, the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, and how the UK Government might proceed with regulating and licensing CCS in the United Kingdom.
This paper provides an up-to-date examination of a number of key existing CCS legal mechanisms and regulatory options at EU and international level and proposals for their change, which it is hoped, could eventually resolve some issues of legal ambiguity.
This report represents the first deliverable of the North Sea Basin Task Force, which Norway and the UK established in November 2005 to work together on issues surrounding the transport and storage of CO2 beneath the North Sea. The North Sea represents the best geological opportunity for storing our CO2 emissions away from the atmosphere for both the UK and Norway. On 30 November 2005, Minister Enoksen of Norway and Minister Wicks of the UK agreed to establish a North Sea Basin Task Force, composed of public and private bodies from countries on the rim of the North Sea. Its purpose: to develop common principles for managing and regulating the transport, injection and permanent storage of CO2 in the North Sea sub-seabed.
This report, funded by United Kingdom Department of Trade and Industry, considers the UK’s emissions of carbon dioxide from large industrial point sources such as power stations and the potential geological storage capacity to safely and securely store these emissions.
This paper examines regulatory developments of major CCS projects to determine actual progress in regulating such projects. There are five case studies of CCS projects that range from enhanced resource recovery to direct storage and which have been developed for a mix of purposes, such as commercial, research and development, and pilot demonstrations. These case studies indicate that regulatory progress varies greatly among projects, and differs depending on the size, scope, and the location of the projects. The focus of this report is the legal and regulatory context for international projects, but it should be recognised that CCS field projects in the United States are also addressing many of the regulatory issues related to CCS.