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Publications, Reports & Research

Our publications, reports and research library hosts over 500 specialist reports and research papers on all topics associated with CCS.

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Capturing CO2
Capturing CO2

11th May 2007

Organisation(s): IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG)

Topic(s): Carbon capture, CO2 capture, Use and storage (CCUS)

Emissions of greenhouse gases are expected to cause climate change. The main greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide (CO2) and the major source of it is the combustion of fossil fuels to supply energy. Emissions can be reduced by a variety of measures, such as improving energy efficiency and developing alternative energy sources, like wind and solar power. However, a rapid move away from fossil fuels is unlikely as energy supply infrastructure has a long lifetime, and such a move could destabilise economies. 

Another way to reduce emissions is to capture the CO2 that is released from fossil fuel-fired power plants and store it underground. This is the focus of this report, as power generation accounts for about one-third of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use. The current leading technologies for power generation are pulverised fuel (PF) combustion steam cycles and natural gas combined cycles (NGCC). The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEA GHG) has assessed the performance and costs of these power plants, both with and without the capture of CO2. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) for the gasification of coal, which was included in the assessment, may be a suitable technology from which to capture CO2. A number of criteria were specified for all the studies to enable the results to be compared in a meaningful manner. The main specifications are listed in the Annex at the end of the report.

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An international regulatory framework for risk governance of carbon capture and storage
An international regulatory framework for risk governance of carbon capture and storage

1st May 2007

Organisation(s): Center for International Climate and Environmental Research

Topic(s): Engineering and project delivery, Law and regulation, Policy

CO2 capture and storage (CCS) in geological structures and its possible risks have been topics of extensive study in recent years. In contrast, the legal and regulatory structures necessary to support widespread capture and long-term, secure storage have received far less attention. This essay seeks to bridge this gap by building on existing CCS risk literature and outlining some of the key components of an international risk governance framework necessary for the widespread diffusion of CCS. The discussion is summarized by making preliminary recommendations on attributes that an effective regulatory regime for CCS should possess.

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Carbon dioxide storage: geological security and environmental issues. Case study on the Sleipner gas field in Norway
Carbon dioxide storage: geological security and environmental issues. Case study on the Sleipner gas field in Norway

1st May 2007

Organisation(s): Bellona Foundation

Topic(s): Carbon capture, Health, safety and environment, Use and storage (CCUS)

The Sleipner project is a commercial CO2 injection project and proved that CO2 capture and storage is a technically feasible and effective method for greenhouse mitigation. It further demonstrates that CO2 storage is both safe and has a low environmental impact. Monitoring is needed for a wide variety of purposes. Specifically, to ensure and document the injection process, verify the quantity of injected CO2 that has been stored by various mechanisms, demonstrate with appropriate monitoring techniques that CO2 remains contained in the intended storage formation(s). This is currently the principal method for assuring that the CO2 remains stored and that performance predictions can be verified.

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Technical support for an enabling policy framework for carbon dioxide capture and geological storage
Technical support for an enabling policy framework for carbon dioxide capture and geological storage

1st April 2007

Organisation(s): Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN)

Topic(s): Carbon capture, Law and regulation, Policy, Use and storage (CCUS)

This paper presents a high level view of the key policy options for regulating CO2 capture and storage (CCS) activities in the EU. Also outlined are some suggested issues and amendments to existing EU legislation that will be required in order to clarify their scope, confer their provisions or remove them as potential barriers.

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The liability of carbon dioxide storage
The liability of carbon dioxide storage

1st February 2007

Topic(s): Carbon capture, Liability, Use and storage (CCUS)

This is a lengthy and detailed thesis including an introduction to both CCS and liability in the US, followed by a dissection of the different types of liability which may be relevant in this context including liability for induced seismicity, groundwater contamination, damage to human health or environment. Draws comparisons with liability for similar operations such as acid gas injection, natural gas storage and enhanced oil recovery using case studies. Concludes with 'lessons learned' and proposed liability scheme.

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Capturing the ‘C’ in climate change: CO2 capture and storage
Capturing the ‘C’ in climate change: CO2 capture and storage

1st January 2007

Organisation(s): Environmental Resources Management (ERM)

Topic(s): Carbon capture, Use and storage (CCUS)

This article attempts to provide an update on recent developments in carbon capture and storage (CCS), with particular emphasis on the legal and regulatory provisions that will need to be in place under international, EU and UK law to accommodate the new technology and the risks of storing CO2 underground.  This involves looking at how some of the recent developments link to the London Convention and its protocol, OSPAR, the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, and how the UK Government might proceed with regulating and licensing CCS in the United Kingdom.

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Carbon capture and storage: A legal perspective
Carbon capture and storage: A legal perspective

1st January 2007

Organisation(s): Carbon Capture Legal Programme (CCLP)

Topic(s): Carbon capture, Law and regulation, Policy, Use and storage (CCUS)

This paper provides an up-to-date examination of a number of key existing CCS legal mechanisms and regulatory options at EU and international level and proposals for their change, which it is hoped, could eventually resolve some issues of legal ambiguity.

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Storing CO2 under the North Sea Basin: A key solution for combating climate change
Storing CO2 under the North Sea Basin: A key solution for combating climate change

1st January 2007

Organisation(s): North Sea Basin Task Force

Topic(s): Carbon capture, Use and storage (CCUS)

This report represents the first deliverable of the North Sea Basin Task Force, which Norway and the UK established in November 2005 to work together on issues surrounding the transport and storage of CO2 beneath the North Sea. The North Sea represents the best geological opportunity for storing our CO2 emissions away from the atmosphere for both the UK and Norway. On 30 November 2005, Minister Enoksen of Norway and Minister Wicks of the UK agreed to establish a North Sea Basin Task Force, composed of public and private bodies from countries on the rim of the North Sea. Its purpose: to develop common principles for managing and regulating the transport, injection and permanent storage of CO2 in the North Sea sub-seabed.

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Industrial carbon dioxide emissions and carbon dioxide storage potential in the UK
Industrial carbon dioxide emissions and carbon dioxide storage potential in the UK

1st October 2006

Organisation(s): British Geological Survey (BGS)

Topic(s): Carbon capture, CO2 storage, Use and storage (CCUS)

This report, funded by United Kingdom Department of Trade and Industry, considers the UK’s emissions of carbon dioxide from large industrial point sources such as power stations and the potential geological storage capacity to safely and securely store these emissions.

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CO2 control technology effects on IGCC plant performance and cost
CO2 control technology effects on IGCC plant performance and cost

25th September 2006

Organisation(s): Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)

Topic(s): CO2 capture, Economics

As part of the USDOE's Carbon Sequestration Program, an integrated modeling framework was developed to evaluate the performance and cost of alternative carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies for fossil-fueled power plants in the context of multi-pollutant control requirements. The model (called IECM, for Integrated Environmental Control Model) also allows for explicit characterization of the uncertainty or variability in any or all input parameters. Power plant options currently include pulverized coal (PC) combustion plants, natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants, and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants. This paper uses the IECM to analyze the effects of adding CCS to an IGCC system employing a GE quench gasifier with a water gas shift reactor and Selexol system for CO2 capture. Parameters of interest include the effects of varying the CO2 removal efficiency, the quality and cost of coal, and selected other factors affecting overall plant performance and cost. The stochastic simulation capability of the model also is used to illustrate the effect of uncertainties or variability in key parameters. The potential for advanced oxygen production and gas turbine technologies to reduce the cost and environmental impacts of IGCC with CCS also is analyzed.

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International carbon capture and storage projects: overcoming legal barriers
International carbon capture and storage projects: overcoming legal barriers

23rd June 2006

Organisation(s): DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)

Topic(s): Carbon capture, Law and regulation, Policy, Use and storage (CCUS)

This paper examines regulatory developments of major CCS projects to determine actual progress in regulating such projects. There are five case studies of CCS projects that range from enhanced resource recovery to direct storage and which have been developed for a mix of purposes, such as commercial, research and development, and pilot demonstrations. These case studies indicate that regulatory progress varies greatly among projects, and differs depending on the size, scope, and the location of the projects. The focus of this report is the legal and regulatory context for international projects, but it should be recognised that CCS field projects in the United States are also addressing many of the regulatory issues related to CCS.

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1996 protocol to the convention on the prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and other matter, 1972 and resolutions adopted by the special meeting
1996 protocol to the convention on the prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and other matter, 1972 and resolutions adopted by the special meeting

24th March 2006

Organisation(s): Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Topic(s): Health, safety and environment

 The 1996 Protocol represents a major change of approach to the question of how to regulate the use of the sea as a depository for waste materials in that, in essence, dumping is prohibited, except for materials on an approved list. This contrasts with the 1972 Convention which permitted dumping of wastes at sea, except for those materials on a banned list. The first Meeting under the Protocol was held from 30 October to 3 November 2006, in conjunction with the 28th Consultative Meeting of the Parties to the London Convention. One of the first key issues for discussion under the 1996 Protocol was a review of the compatibility of CO2 capture and storage in sub-seabed geological structures, as part of a suite of measures to tackle the challenge of climate change and ocean acidification.

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