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Publications, Reports & Research

Our publications, reports and research library hosts over 500 specialist reports and research papers on all topics associated with CCS.

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CO2 control technology effects on IGCC plant performance and cost
CO2 control technology effects on IGCC plant performance and cost

25th September 2006

Organisation(s): Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)

Topic(s): CO2 capture, Economics

As part of the USDOE's Carbon Sequestration Program, an integrated modeling framework was developed to evaluate the performance and cost of alternative carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies for fossil-fueled power plants in the context of multi-pollutant control requirements. The model (called IECM, for Integrated Environmental Control Model) also allows for explicit characterization of the uncertainty or variability in any or all input parameters. Power plant options currently include pulverized coal (PC) combustion plants, natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants, and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants. This paper uses the IECM to analyze the effects of adding CCS to an IGCC system employing a GE quench gasifier with a water gas shift reactor and Selexol system for CO2 capture. Parameters of interest include the effects of varying the CO2 removal efficiency, the quality and cost of coal, and selected other factors affecting overall plant performance and cost. The stochastic simulation capability of the model also is used to illustrate the effect of uncertainties or variability in key parameters. The potential for advanced oxygen production and gas turbine technologies to reduce the cost and environmental impacts of IGCC with CCS also is analyzed.

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International carbon capture and storage projects: overcoming legal barriers
International carbon capture and storage projects: overcoming legal barriers

23rd June 2006

Organisation(s): DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)

Topic(s): Carbon capture, Law and regulation, Policy, Use and storage (CCUS)

This paper examines regulatory developments of major CCS projects to determine actual progress in regulating such projects. There are five case studies of CCS projects that range from enhanced resource recovery to direct storage and which have been developed for a mix of purposes, such as commercial, research and development, and pilot demonstrations. These case studies indicate that regulatory progress varies greatly among projects, and differs depending on the size, scope, and the location of the projects. The focus of this report is the legal and regulatory context for international projects, but it should be recognised that CCS field projects in the United States are also addressing many of the regulatory issues related to CCS.

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1996 protocol to the convention on the prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and other matter, 1972 and resolutions adopted by the special meeting
1996 protocol to the convention on the prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and other matter, 1972 and resolutions adopted by the special meeting

24th March 2006

Organisation(s): Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Topic(s): Health, safety and environment

 The 1996 Protocol represents a major change of approach to the question of how to regulate the use of the sea as a depository for waste materials in that, in essence, dumping is prohibited, except for materials on an approved list. This contrasts with the 1972 Convention which permitted dumping of wastes at sea, except for those materials on a banned list. The first Meeting under the Protocol was held from 30 October to 3 November 2006, in conjunction with the 28th Consultative Meeting of the Parties to the London Convention. One of the first key issues for discussion under the 1996 Protocol was a review of the compatibility of CO2 capture and storage in sub-seabed geological structures, as part of a suite of measures to tackle the challenge of climate change and ocean acidification.

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The future of coal in a greenhouse gas constrained world
The future of coal in a greenhouse gas constrained world

1st January 2006

Topic(s): Carbon capture, Use and storage (CCUS)

An interdisciplinary group of MIT faculty and research staff have participated in a study to assess the contribution coal can make to the growing world energy demand during a period of increasing concern about global climate change. The study looks out to the year 2050 and assesses technologies and policies we should pursue in the short-term so that we can utilize coal in the longer-term and reduce its associated CO2 emissions by at least 1 GtC. This paper summarizes the findings from three key components of the study: future coal use, coal conversion technologies, and CO2 sequestration. The full report will be available over the internet in summer of 2006.

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1996 protocol to the convention on the prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and other material, 1972
1996 protocol to the convention on the prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and other material, 1972

1st January 2006

Organisation(s): Carbon Capture Legal Programme (CCLP)

Topic(s): Health, safety and environment

1996 protocol to the convention on the prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and other material, 1972

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Social cost of carbon: a closer look at uncertainty
Social cost of carbon: a closer look at uncertainty

1st November 2005

Organisation(s): Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), Stockholm Environment Institute

Topic(s): Economics, Social cost

Uncertainty is inherent in estimates of the social cost of carbon (SCC). The UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) initiated this research to evaluate the sources of uncertainties, plausible ranges of estimates of the SCC and areas for further research and assessment. The analytical framework for the project is a risk assessment that brings together elements of uncertainty in climate change and its impacts with uncertainties in economic valuation; both are related to the context of decision making.

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Property interests and liability of geologic carbon dioxide storage
Property interests and liability of geologic carbon dioxide storage

1st September 2005

Topic(s): CO2 storage, Liability

Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture of carbon dioxide from a stationary source and injection into a suitable storage site. Increasing attention is being paid to the use of geologic formations as storage reservoirs for captured carbon dioxide. Property interests play a role in determining the cost of geologic storage through the acquisition of necessary geologic reservoir property rights and the value of storage through ownership of injected carbon dioxide. The determination of the ownership interest for the storage reservoir depends on whether carbon dioxide is being injected into a mineral formation, including depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and oil reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery, in which case ownership determination is based on mineral law, or whether carbon dioxide is being into a deep saline formation, in which case the determination of property interests is influenced by water law. Acquisition of ownership rights over the formation may be done by voluntary methods, eminent domain, or adverse possession. Ownership over injected carbon dioxide will depend on whether a state subscribes to the ownership or non-ownership theory of injected gas. Liability concerning property rights may derive from several theories, including geophysical surface trespass, geophysical subsurface trespass, or liability from commingling of goods. Legislation on the state or federal level concerning property interests and eminent domain power may provide clarification over property interests and liability of geologic storage of carbon dioxide.

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Building the cost curves for CO2 storage: European sector
Building the cost curves for CO2 storage: European sector

17th February 2005

Organisation(s): IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG)

Topic(s): CO2 storage, Economics

The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEA GHG) has been systematically evaluating the cost and potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases arising from anthropogenic activities, especially the use of fossil fuels. A mitigation technology that has been given particular attention is the capture and storage of CO2 originating from large stationary point sources. To date a series of studies have been undertaken, on a range of options for the storage of carbon dioxide. 

This report reviews the development of a CO2 storage cost curve for Europe. The study has been carried out by The Netherlands Geological Survey (TNO-NITG) in co-operation with the geological surveys of Britain (BGS) and Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and ECOFYS.

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Building the cost curves for CO2 storage: North America
Building the cost curves for CO2 storage: North America

1st February 2005

Organisation(s): IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG)

Topic(s): Carbon capture, CO2 storage, Economics, Use and storage (CCUS)

The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme has been systematically evaluating the cost and potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases arising from anthropogenic activities, especially the use of fossil fuels. To allow the different mitigation options under consideration to be compared IEA GHG has developed a series of mitigation cost curves which show the potential capacity for COreduction as a function of the cost. This report reviews the development of a COstorage cost curve for North America, which covers on-shore USA and Canada.

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European CO2 capture and storage projects
European CO2 capture and storage projects

10th September 2004

Organisation(s): European Commission

Topic(s): Carbon capture, Use and storage (CCUS)

This publication provides an overview of the European Commission’s Fifth Framework carbon capture and storage (CCS) programme (1999-2002) and a snapshot of CCS projects funded under the Sixth Programme (2002-2006).

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