Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has an essential role in reducing global greenhouse gas emissions. Energy emission scenarios developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) demonstrate that a portfolio of low-carbon technologies is needed if emissions are to be reduced consistent with limiting projected temperature rises to 2°C by 2050, as recommended by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
The IEA has modelled least-cost emissions reduction pathways. Technologies among those needed under such pathways are energy efficiency gains, renewables, fuel switching, nuclear, and importantly CCS, which could play a role greater than any technology other than energy efficiency gains by 2050. By 2050, the IEA BLUE Map Scenario has CCS contributing 19 per cent of least cost emission reductions. This contribution is more than from renewables and more than triple the contribution from nuclear.