Carbon capture, use and storage (CCUS), CO2 transport, CO2 hubs
The aim of this paper is to provide a non-technical summary of a selected number of publicly released and peer-reviewed studies on CO2 distribution infrastructure (networks) as applied to CCS. The primary focus of this paper is on the transport of CO2 by pipeline. Much of the publicly available literature concurs that pipelines will be the most likely option used for transporting a large majority of the gigatonnes of CO2 (GtCO2) that will potentially be required to be captured and stored in the decades to come. This scale of mitigation is considered to be imperative within the context of the global community preserving a carbon budget (the allowable volume of greenhouse gas emissions to be released) that may avoid dangerous levels of climate change.
The paper does not specifically focus on CO2 capture or storage solutions. It recognises however that CO2 will not be transported at scale unless there is a sufficient and reliable source of CO2 as well as sufficient, secure, safe and available long term storage options. These activities will consequently require the establishment of property rights, appropriate regulations governing the long term liability, monitoring, measurement and verification (MMV) of sites, as well as effective compliance regimes across the CCS chain.
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