Publications, Reports & Research
Our publications, reports and research library hosts over 500 specialist reports and research papers on all topics associated with CCS.
After almost thirty years of climate change negotiations, global CO2 levels are still rising (NOAA, 2018). The UNFCCC Paris Agreement goals of holding global warming to ‘well-below’ 2°C and to ‘pursue efforts’ to limit it to 1.5°C are in stark contrast to the ever-dwindling carbon budget.
The evidence makes it clear. CO2 needs to be removed from the atmosphere, known as carbon dioxide removal (CDR), using negative emissions technologies (NETs) to meet global warming targets. Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is emerging as the best solution to decarbonise emission-intensive industries and sectors and enable negative emissions.
This Perspective from Christopher Consoli, Senior Consultant - Storage, explores this technology and its deployment as a climate mitigation solution.
Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is a promising class of technologies for carbon dioxide (CO2) removal and consists of the capture and permanent geological storage of CO2 stemming from biomass transformation or combustion. Several industrial sectors can implement this technology, including the biofuel sector which is predominantly made up of bioethanol production. Bioethanol is one of the few renewable alternatives to oil and gas-based liquid fuel, with which it can be easily blended to be used as a transportation fuel.
As countries seek to decarbonise transport, demand for bioethanol is set to grow globally. By integrating CCS into the production process for bioethanol, negative emissions can be created. It is forecast that a significant proportion of the world’s bioethanol production will come from developing countries (International Energy Agency, 2018).
This brief focuses on how the production of bioethanol with CCS can be supported by climate finance providers, and the pivotal role Brazil can play in facilitating this process.
Collectively, our three Indicator Reports 2018 form a further, criteria-based assessment known as the CCS Readiness Index, or CCS-RI. The 2018 CCS-RI examines over 50 countries using 70 discrete criteria and enables a comparative assessment of countries globally.
Clear from the 2018 assessment is that greater effort is required to deploy CCS at the scale necessary to meet climate change mitigation ambitions.
Government policy, given effect through law and the allocation of public resources, is critical to achieving climate targets. It plays a material role in determining the return on investment for any climate mitigation technology making confidence in government policy a pre-requisite of investment.
The CCS-PI tracks the development of government policy to accelerate the deployment of CCS as an essential climate mitigation technology in over 100 countries.
The availability of storage resources is the ultimate pre-requisite for CCS deployment. For global CCS deployment, each country needs to know where, and how much, CO2 can be stored. Each nation needs to characterise, explore and appraise a national portfolio of accessible, commercially-viable storage sites ready for CCS Facilities.
The CCS-SI tracks the development of storage resources for 80 countries. The 2018 scores confirm an overall improvement since the 2015 CCS-SI with twelve nations having mature, or near-mature, storage resources to enable wide-scale CCS.
Law and regulation remains a critical element of a government’s policy response to support the development and deployment of CCS. Robust legal and regulatory frameworks provide certainty for businesses eager to engage in innovation, and the deployment of CCS.
The CCS-LRI offers a detailed examination and assessment of national legal and regulatory frameworks in 55 countries and examines a range of legal and regulatory factors likely to be critical for the regulation of the technology.
Callide Oxyfuel Project – Final Results
4th May 2018
The Callide Oxyfuel project was undertaken in three parts:
- Stage 1 – Demonstration of oxyfuel CO2 capture;
- Stage 2 – assessment of CO2 storage options and potential in Queensland and CO2 injection testing; and
- Stage 3 – Project wrap up and commercialisation.
The work and outcomes of these three phases are summarised in this report.
Brazilian Atlas of CO2 Capture and Geological Storage
22nd December 2017
The Brazilian Atlas of CO2 Capture and Geological Storage presents the main CO2 sources in the country in relation to their type and annual emission. The Atlas also presents the existing pipeline infrastructure and rank possible areas (basins) for geological storage in terms of their prospectivity. Legal issues are also discussed in addition to the basic principles of the technology. The Atlas represents an important step in the development of CCS in Brazil and the dissemination of knowledge of these technologies, contributing to actions leading to mitigation of climate change. It can be used as a reference for CCS in Brazil, but also as a general textbook on CCS technologies.
Principles for Best Practice Geomechanics for CCS Injection Operations and its Application to the CarbonNet Project
27th October 2017
Organisation(s): CarbonNet Project
CarbonNet is investigating the potential for establishing a commercial scale CCS network, bringing together multiple CO2 capture projects in Victoria’s Latrobe Valley, transporting the CO2 via pipeline and injecting it deep into nearshore underground storage sites in the Gippsland region. It plans an initial capacity to capture, transport and store in the range of 1-5 Mtpa of CO2 during the 2020s.
The latest report, titled “Principles for Best Practice Geomechanics for CCS Injection Operations and its Application to the CarbonNet Project”, found the basin in which the CarbonNet Project site is targeting has the ideal geological conditions for storage. A CarbonNet Project study shows that their storage site would not be prone to seismicity and that the selected site is suitable for the permanent storage of CO2.
Report led by researchers from University College London: "The role of CCS in meeting climate policy targets"
24th October 2017
Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute
The Global CCS Institute has commissioned an authoritative and independent report that examines policy issues in the deployment of CCS, in accordance with global commitments to limit temperature increases to below 2 and 1.5 degrees Celsius. It outlines comprehensively the arguments made for and against CCS deployment, examines the experience of CCS deployment to date in a range of countries, draws lessons from other analogous technologies, and explores findings from integrated energy systems modelling.
The report is intended to inform a wide variety of stakeholders on the relative importance of the full set of policy instruments available to promote CCS and emission reduction technologies more generally.
The report was led by authors Dr Nick Hughes and Professor Paul Ekins at the UCL Institute for Sustainable Resources, as part of a consortium that drew in other world-leading expertise from the UCL Energy Institute, UCL Faculty of Laws, University of Edinburgh and the UK Energy Research Centre. The project team brought together extensive experience on CCS technology, legal and regulatory issues connected to CCS, low-carbon energy policy-making, energy systems analysis and the governance of energy technologies.
There are 15 large-scale CCS projects operating globally. Ten out of these fifteen projects, are located in North America . The European Union's (EU) stated ambition was to have up to twelve operating CCS projects by 2015 , however this goal was not accomplished. The two projects currently operating storage in the European Economic Area, Sleipner and Snøhvit, are located in Norway. Because of this disparity in the number of projects operating in North America and in Europe – ten vs. two – we have analysed business models of major CCS projects in North America and in Europe, with an aim to identify risks and enablers in CCS project financing development on both continents. We find that successful CCS project development depends on multiple factors, such as (i) clarity of regulatory frameworks, (ii) efficiency of permitting processes, and (iii) early and sustained stakeholder engagement for public acceptance. However, project finance remain the most challenging piece.
The successful deployment of carbon capture and storage as a means to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions requires the availability of significant geological storage capacity. Assessments that identify suitable sedimentary basins and their capacity are the first logical step in defining global carbon capture and storage potential. This paper presents a collation and summary of the current status of storage assessments worldwide known as the Global Storage Portfolio. The analysis found that there are substantial storage resources available in most regions of the world. Almost all nations that have published regional assessments have identified sufficient storage resources to support multiple carbon capture and storage projects. This analysis also found that the methods to determine and classify resources are highly variable across regions despite reliable assessment methodologies being available. Case studies on Europe and Southeast Asia discuss the different approaches being undertaken for their respective regional assessments and their progression towards being ready for the deployment of CCS.