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Publications, Reports & Research

Our publications, reports and research library hosts over 500 specialist reports and research papers on all topics associated with CCS.

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Waste-to-Energy with CCS: A pathway to carbon-negative power generation
Waste-to-Energy with CCS: A pathway to carbon-negative power generation

14th October 2019

Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute

Topic(s): ccs, Waste-to-Energy

A growing global population and rising living standards are producing ever greater quantities of municipal solid waste (MSW). This same growth in population and living standards is also driving ever-larger demand for energy, especially electricity.

A key solution to increasing quantities of waste, rising energy demand and methane emissions from MSW is Waste-to-Energy (WtE); the generation of energy – in the form of electricity and heat – from the processing of waste. The addition of carbon capture and storage (CCS) to WtE has the potential to make waste a zero or even negative emissions energy source, depending upon the origin of the wastes utilised.

In our latest Perspective, Senior Consultant - Capture Technology, David T. Kearns, provides an overview of Waste-to-Energy including how it works and its relation to climate change. The Perspective also discusses how the addition of CCS has the potential to make waste a zero, or even negative, emissions energy source.

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Lessons and Perceptions: Adopting a Commercial Approach to CCS Liability
Lessons and Perceptions: Adopting a Commercial Approach to CCS Liability

14th August 2019

Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute

Topic(s): CCS Liability, ccs projects, Liability

Liability has long been raised as a significant barrier to the wide scale deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Despite regulatory developments, the topic of liability continues to be considered by some CCS project developers, policy-makers and regulators as a critical issue and potential ‘show-stopper’ for the technology’s deployment.

This report, through policy and regulatory analysis as well as interviews with policy makers, regulators, lawyers, project proponents and representative from the insurance sector, seeks to challenge these views and make the case for a more commercially-minded view of liability.

The report’s findings reveal that many of the liabilities borne under CCS-specific models are both familiar and eminently manageable. Furthermore, the report demonstrates proposed solutions and examples available in addressing liability for those seeking to invest in or operate CCS projects.

The report also examines the meaning of liability throughout the CCS lifecycle and the unique challenges presented by greenhouse emissions/climate liabilities. The critical role of government and the private sector in allocating and managing risks across the CCS project lifecycle, as well as the essential requirement for further engagement of the insurance sector to assist operators manage liabilities are also topics addressed through this timely report.

The report will be of particular interest to government policy makers, regulatory bodies, CCS project proponents, investors and those in the insurance sector wishing to further understand the topic of liability, the reasons why it is perceived as a barrier to CCS deployment and gain insights into how these barriers have been - and may continue to be - managed and overcome.

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ROAD Project – Close out report
ROAD Project – Close out report

23rd July 2019

The ROAD project was one of the leading European CCS Projects from 2010 to 2017. During that time, a great deal of project development and engineering work was completed, including full design and procurement to allow a possible FID at end 2011 or early 2012.

This report gives the overview of all the public “close-out” reports written after the formal decision to terminate the project was made in September 2017. This set of reports is designed to present the knowledge gained and lessons learnt from the ROAD Project in an accessible form. The reports cover technical issues, financial issues, risk management, permitting and regulation. The objective is to give future CCS project developers, knowledge institutes, researchers and other interested parties the maximum opportunity to use the knowledge gained and lessons learnt by the ROAD project team.

You can find all the public reports and specific sections below.

Report sections Scope
Overview Introduce and summarise the public close-out reports.
Capture and Compression Technical report covering capture, compression and power plant integration.
Transport Technical report covering CO2 pipeline transport.
CO2 Storage Both technical and commercial aspects of CO2 storage for ROAD. Subsurface work required to demonstrate permanent storage is described.
Risk Management The risk management approach used by ROAD.
Permitting and Regulation Description of the regulatory and permitting framework and process for the ROAD project, including required changes to regulations.
Governance and Compliance Company structure and governance for Maasvlakte CCS Project C.V., the joint venture undertaking the ROAD Project.
Project Costs and Funding A presentation of the projected economics of the project, with both projected income and costs.
Finance and Control Description of the financial and control systems, including the costs incurred and grants claimed.
Knowledge Sharing Outline of the Knowledge Sharing & Dissemination plan as developed by the ROAD project and completed KS deliverables and actions.
Public Engagement Description of how ROAD organized and managed the Public Engagement process.

Disclaimer

The content within the Global CCS Institute Publications, Reports and Research Library is provided for information purposes only. We make every effort and take reasonable care to keep the content of this section up-to-date and error-free. However, we make no claim as to its accuracy, currency or reliability.

Content and material featured within this section of our website includes reports and research published by third parties. The content and material may include opinions and recommendations of third parties that do not reflect those held by the Global CCS Institute.

The LCFS and CCS Protocol: An Overview for Policymakers and Project Developers
The LCFS and CCS Protocol: An Overview for Policymakers and Project Developers

24th May 2019

Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute

Topic(s): Biofuels / Bioenergy, Policy, US

The Global CCS Institute has launched a report analyzing California’s recently passed carbon capture and storage protocol. The report provides a summary of the regulation for project developers and policymakers in other states and countries, given the Protocol's global applicability. While comparing it to other relevant regulations – including the federal carbon capture tax credit also known as 45Q – the report seeks to raise awareness for the opportunities created through the protocol and to advance deployment opportunities.

The protocol incentivizes carbon capture and storage projects reducing the lifecycle emissions from bioethanol, hydrogen, and crude, provided the fuel is sold into the California market, as well as direct air capture projects globally.

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US Policy Influencer Study 2019
US Policy Influencer Study 2019

4th May 2019

Topic(s): Policy; US

With US CO2 emissions growth outpacing global emissions growth and many Americans already experiencing the impacts of climate change, policy makers in Washington have begun drafting policy statements and principles for comprehensive climate policy. A year after the US passed the most progressive carbon capture and storage incentive policy globally – a tax credit also known as 45Q –  lawmakers are also looking to develop further policies to support the large-scale deployment of carbon capture and storage.

To support stakeholders, policy influencers, and lawmakers throughout the process of formulating carbon capture-supportive policies as well as more effectively communicate as advocates, the Global CCS Institute has commissioned a federal policy influencer survey in Washington, DC. The goal is to improve the understanding of support for climate action and carbon emissions reduction technologies such as carbon capture and storage. Polling 100 policy influencers, 50 from the private sector and 50 from the public sector, the survey provides insights into perceptions of the US energy transition, including the role of government, and the understanding of carbon capture technologies.

The results are encouraging: In pursuit of realistic climate solutions, policy influencers seem to have abandoned technology favoritism, an approach that has been strengthened by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Report on Global Warming of 1.5C released in October 2018. 64 percent of respondents answered that the future of US energy needs to include all forms of clean energy rather than just renewables or fossil fuels. There is also broad agreement among respondents that the US should pursue low-carbon technologies, and that all options must be on the table, albeit clean is the most important energy quality.

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Disclaimer

The content within the Global CCS Institute Publications, Reports and Research Library is provided for information purposes only. We make every effort and take reasonable care to keep the content of this section up-to-date and error-free. However, we make no claim as to its accuracy, currency or reliability.

Content and material featured within this section of our website includes reports and research published by third parties. The content and material may include opinions and recommendations of third parties that do not reflect those held by the Global CCS Institute.

Policy priorities to incentivise large scale deployment of CCS
Policy priorities to incentivise large scale deployment of CCS

2nd April 2019

Topic(s): Business cases, Carbon capture, Policy

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is essential to achieving climate change mitigation targets. It is the only feasible technology that can deliver deep emissions reductions in many industrial processes that are vital to the global economy, such as steel, cement and chemicals production. In combination with bioenergy used for power generation or biofuel production, it provides one of the few technologies that can deliver negative emissions at scale; unambiguously required to limit temperature rises to meet the Paris climate targets.

While the critical role of CCS has been demonstrated in many reports, the policies in place today are insufficient to ensure CCS deployment scales up at the rate required. This paper seeks to address the current policy gap by describing priorities for policymakers to support the transition from current to future rates of deployment of CCS.

The Institute's report explores how to stimulate investment in CCS. The paper also identifies concrete policy actions and reviews the progress achieved until now by identifying the policies and commercial conditions that have enabled investment in the 18 large-scale CCS facilities currently in operation, and the additional five that are under construction.

 

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Disclaimer

The content within the Global CCS Institute Publications, Reports and Research Library is provided for information purposes only. We make every effort and take reasonable care to keep the content of this section up-to-date and error-free. However, we make no claim as to its accuracy, currency or reliability.

Content and material featured within this section of our website includes reports and research published by third parties. The content and material may include opinions and recommendations of third parties that do not reflect those held by the Global CCS Institute.

Bioenergy and Carbon Capture and Storage
Bioenergy and Carbon Capture and Storage

14th March 2019

Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute

Topic(s): BECCS, Biofuels / Bioenergy, Negative Emissions Technologies

After almost thirty years of climate change negotiations, global CO2 levels are still rising (NOAA, 2018). The UNFCCC Paris Agreement goals of holding global warming to ‘well-below’ 2°C and to ‘pursue efforts’ to limit it to 1.5°C are in stark contrast to the ever-dwindling carbon budget.

The evidence makes it clear. CO2 needs to be removed from the atmosphere, known as carbon dioxide removal (CDR)using negative emissions technologies (NETs) to meet global warming targets. Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is emerging as the best solution to decarbonise emission-intensive industries and sectors and enable negative emissions.

This Perspective from Christopher Consoli, Senior Consultant - Storage, explores this technology and its deployment as a climate mitigation solution.

 

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Financing BECCS in developing countries
Financing BECCS in developing countries

11th February 2019

Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute

Topic(s): BECCS, bioethanol, Project financing

Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is a promising class of technologies for carbon dioxide (CO2) removal and consists of the capture and permanent geological storage of CO2 stemming from biomass transformation or combustion. Several industrial sectors can implement this technology, including the biofuel sector which is predominantly made up of bioethanol production. Bioethanol is one of the few renewable alternatives to oil and gas-based liquid fuel, with which it can be easily blended to be used as a transportation fuel.

As countries seek to decarbonise transport, demand for bioethanol is set to grow globally. By integrating CCS into the production process for bioethanol, negative emissions can be created. It is forecast that a significant proportion of the world’s bioethanol production will come from developing countries (International Energy Agency, 2018).

This brief focuses on how the production of bioethanol with CCS can be supported by climate finance providers, and the pivotal role Brazil can play in facilitating this process.

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The Carbon Capture and Storage Readiness Index 2018: Is the world ready for carbon capture and storage?
The Carbon Capture and Storage Readiness Index 2018: Is the world ready for carbon capture and storage?

16th October 2018

Topic(s): Economics, Carbon capture, use and storage (CCUS), Policy, law and regulation

Collectively, our three Indicator Reports 2018 form a further, criteria-based assessment known as the CCS Readiness Index, or CCS-RI. The 2018 CCS-RI examines over 50 countries using 70 discrete criteria and enables a comparative assessment of countries globally.

Clear from the 2018 assessment is that greater effort is required to deploy CCS at the scale necessary to meet climate change mitigation ambitions.

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Disclaimer

The content within the Global CCS Institute Publications, Reports and Research Library is provided for information purposes only. We make every effort and take reasonable care to keep the content of this section up-to-date and error-free. However, we make no claim as to its accuracy, currency or reliability.

Content and material featured within this section of our website includes reports and research published by third parties. The content and material may include opinions and recommendations of third parties that do not reflect those held by the Global CCS Institute.

Government policy, given effect through law and the allocation of public resources, is critical to achieving climate targets. It plays a material role in determining the return on investment for any climate mitigation technology making confidence in government policy a pre-requisite of investment.

The CCS-PI tracks the development of government policy to accelerate the deployment of CCS as an essential climate mitigation technology in over 100 countries.

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Disclaimer

The content within the Global CCS Institute Publications, Reports and Research Library is provided for information purposes only. We make every effort and take reasonable care to keep the content of this section up-to-date and error-free. However, we make no claim as to its accuracy, currency or reliability.

Content and material featured within this section of our website includes reports and research published by third parties. The content and material may include opinions and recommendations of third parties that do not reflect those held by the Global CCS Institute.

CCS Storage Indicator (CCS-SI)
CCS Storage Indicator (CCS-SI)

16th October 2018

Topic(s): Carbon capture, use and storage (CCUS), Policy, law and regulation, Capacity development

The availability of storage resources is the ultimate pre-requisite for CCS deployment. For global CCS deployment, each country needs to know where, and how much, CO2 can be stored. Each nation needs to characterise, explore and appraise a national portfolio of accessible, commercially-viable storage sites ready for CCS Facilities.

The CCS-SI tracks the development of storage resources for 80 countries. The 2018 scores confirm an overall improvement since the 2015 CCS-SI with twelve nations having mature, or near-mature, storage resources to enable wide-scale CCS.

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Disclaimer

The content within the Global CCS Institute Publications, Reports and Research Library is provided for information purposes only. We make every effort and take reasonable care to keep the content of this section up-to-date and error-free. However, we make no claim as to its accuracy, currency or reliability.

Content and material featured within this section of our website includes reports and research published by third parties. The content and material may include opinions and recommendations of third parties that do not reflect those held by the Global CCS Institute.

Legal & Regulatory Indicator (CCS-LRI)
Legal & Regulatory Indicator (CCS-LRI)

16th October 2018

Topic(s): Carbon capture, use and storage (CCUS), Policy, law and regulation

Law and regulation remains a critical element of a government’s policy response to support the development and deployment of CCS. Robust legal and regulatory frameworks provide certainty for businesses eager to engage in innovation, and the deployment of CCS.

The CCS-LRI offers a detailed examination and assessment of national legal and regulatory frameworks in 55 countries and examines a range of legal and regulatory factors likely to be critical for the regulation of the technology.

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Disclaimer

The content within the Global CCS Institute Publications, Reports and Research Library is provided for information purposes only. We make every effort and take reasonable care to keep the content of this section up-to-date and error-free. However, we make no claim as to its accuracy, currency or reliability.

Content and material featured within this section of our website includes reports and research published by third parties. The content and material may include opinions and recommendations of third parties that do not reflect those held by the Global CCS Institute.

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