Publications, Reports & Research
Our publications, reports and research library hosts over 500 specialist reports and research papers on all topics associated with CCS.
The LCFS and CCS Protocol: An Overview for Policymakers and Project Developers
24th May 2019
The Global CCS Institute has launched a report analyzing California’s recently passed carbon capture and storage protocol. The report provides a summary of the regulation for project developers and policymakers in other states and countries, given the Protocol's global applicability. While comparing it to other relevant regulations – including the federal carbon capture tax credit also known as 45Q – the report seeks to raise awareness for the opportunities created through the protocol and to advance deployment opportunities.
The protocol incentivizes carbon capture and storage projects reducing the lifecycle emissions from bioethanol, hydrogen, and crude, provided the fuel is sold into the California market, as well as direct air capture projects globally.
US Policy Influencer Study 2019
4th May 2019
Topic(s): Policy; US
With US CO2 emissions growth outpacing global emissions growth and many Americans already experiencing the impacts of climate change, policy makers in Washington have begun drafting policy statements and principles for comprehensive climate policy. A year after the US passed the most progressive carbon capture and storage incentive policy globally – a tax credit also known as 45Q – lawmakers are also looking to develop further policies to support the large-scale deployment of carbon capture and storage.
To support stakeholders, policy influencers, and lawmakers throughout the process of formulating carbon capture-supportive policies as well as more effectively communicate as advocates, the Global CCS Institute has commissioned a federal policy influencer survey in Washington, DC. The goal is to improve the understanding of support for climate action and carbon emissions reduction technologies such as carbon capture and storage. Polling 100 policy influencers, 50 from the private sector and 50 from the public sector, the survey provides insights into perceptions of the US energy transition, including the role of government, and the understanding of carbon capture technologies.
The results are encouraging: In pursuit of realistic climate solutions, policy influencers seem to have abandoned technology favoritism, an approach that has been strengthened by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Report on Global Warming of 1.5C released in October 2018. 64 percent of respondents answered that the future of US energy needs to include all forms of clean energy rather than just renewables or fossil fuels. There is also broad agreement among respondents that the US should pursue low-carbon technologies, and that all options must be on the table, albeit clean is the most important energy quality.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is essential to achieving climate change mitigation targets. It is the only feasible technology that can deliver deep emissions reductions in many industrial processes that are vital to the global economy, such as steel, cement and chemicals production. In combination with bioenergy used for power generation or biofuel production, it provides one of the few technologies that can deliver negative emissions at scale; unambiguously required to limit temperature rises to meet the Paris climate targets.
While the critical role of CCS has been demonstrated in many reports, the policies in place today are insufficient to ensure CCS deployment scales up at the rate required. This paper seeks to address the current policy gap by describing priorities for policymakers to support the transition from current to future rates of deployment of CCS.
The Institute's report explores how to stimulate investment in CCS. The paper also identifies concrete policy actions and reviews the progress achieved until now by identifying the policies and commercial conditions that have enabled investment in the 18 large-scale CCS facilities currently in operation, and the additional five that are under construction.
After almost thirty years of climate change negotiations, global CO2 levels are still rising (NOAA, 2018). The UNFCCC Paris Agreement goals of holding global warming to ‘well-below’ 2°C and to ‘pursue efforts’ to limit it to 1.5°C are in stark contrast to the ever-dwindling carbon budget.
The evidence makes it clear. CO2 needs to be removed from the atmosphere, known as carbon dioxide removal (CDR), using negative emissions technologies (NETs) to meet global warming targets. Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is emerging as the best solution to decarbonise emission-intensive industries and sectors and enable negative emissions.
This Perspective from Christopher Consoli, Senior Consultant - Storage, explores this technology and its deployment as a climate mitigation solution.
Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is a promising class of technologies for carbon dioxide (CO2) removal and consists of the capture and permanent geological storage of CO2 stemming from biomass transformation or combustion. Several industrial sectors can implement this technology, including the biofuel sector which is predominantly made up of bioethanol production. Bioethanol is one of the few renewable alternatives to oil and gas-based liquid fuel, with which it can be easily blended to be used as a transportation fuel.
As countries seek to decarbonise transport, demand for bioethanol is set to grow globally. By integrating CCS into the production process for bioethanol, negative emissions can be created. It is forecast that a significant proportion of the world’s bioethanol production will come from developing countries (International Energy Agency, 2018).
This brief focuses on how the production of bioethanol with CCS can be supported by climate finance providers, and the pivotal role Brazil can play in facilitating this process.
Collectively, our three Indicator Reports 2018 form a further, criteria-based assessment known as the CCS Readiness Index, or CCS-RI. The 2018 CCS-RI examines over 50 countries using 70 discrete criteria and enables a comparative assessment of countries globally.
Clear from the 2018 assessment is that greater effort is required to deploy CCS at the scale necessary to meet climate change mitigation ambitions.
Government policy, given effect through law and the allocation of public resources, is critical to achieving climate targets. It plays a material role in determining the return on investment for any climate mitigation technology making confidence in government policy a pre-requisite of investment.
The CCS-PI tracks the development of government policy to accelerate the deployment of CCS as an essential climate mitigation technology in over 100 countries.
The availability of storage resources is the ultimate pre-requisite for CCS deployment. For global CCS deployment, each country needs to know where, and how much, CO2 can be stored. Each nation needs to characterise, explore and appraise a national portfolio of accessible, commercially-viable storage sites ready for CCS Facilities.
The CCS-SI tracks the development of storage resources for 80 countries. The 2018 scores confirm an overall improvement since the 2015 CCS-SI with twelve nations having mature, or near-mature, storage resources to enable wide-scale CCS.
Law and regulation remains a critical element of a government’s policy response to support the development and deployment of CCS. Robust legal and regulatory frameworks provide certainty for businesses eager to engage in innovation, and the deployment of CCS.
The CCS-LRI offers a detailed examination and assessment of national legal and regulatory frameworks in 55 countries and examines a range of legal and regulatory factors likely to be critical for the regulation of the technology.
Callide Oxyfuel Project – Final Results
4th May 2018
The Callide Oxyfuel project was undertaken in three parts:
- Stage 1 – Demonstration of oxyfuel CO2 capture;
- Stage 2 – assessment of CO2 storage options and potential in Queensland and CO2 injection testing; and
- Stage 3 – Project wrap up and commercialisation.
The work and outcomes of these three phases are summarised in this report.
Brazilian Atlas of CO2 Capture and Geological Storage
22nd December 2017
The Brazilian Atlas of CO2 Capture and Geological Storage presents the main CO2 sources in the country in relation to their type and annual emission. The Atlas also presents the existing pipeline infrastructure and rank possible areas (basins) for geological storage in terms of their prospectivity. Legal issues are also discussed in addition to the basic principles of the technology. The Atlas represents an important step in the development of CCS in Brazil and the dissemination of knowledge of these technologies, contributing to actions leading to mitigation of climate change. It can be used as a reference for CCS in Brazil, but also as a general textbook on CCS technologies.
Principles for Best Practice Geomechanics for CCS Injection Operations and its Application to the CarbonNet Project
27th October 2017
Organisation(s): CarbonNet Project
CarbonNet is investigating the potential for establishing a commercial scale CCS network, bringing together multiple CO2 capture projects in Victoria’s Latrobe Valley, transporting the CO2 via pipeline and injecting it deep into nearshore underground storage sites in the Gippsland region. It plans an initial capacity to capture, transport and store in the range of 1-5 Mtpa of CO2 during the 2020s.
The latest report, titled “Principles for Best Practice Geomechanics for CCS Injection Operations and its Application to the CarbonNet Project”, found the basin in which the CarbonNet Project site is targeting has the ideal geological conditions for storage. A CarbonNet Project study shows that their storage site would not be prone to seismicity and that the selected site is suitable for the permanent storage of CO2.