Publications, Reports & Research
Our publications, reports and research library hosts over 500 specialist reports and research papers on all topics associated with CCS.
After almost thirty years of climate change negotiations, global CO2 levels are still rising (NOAA, 2018). The UNFCCC Paris Agreement goals of holding global warming to ‘well-below’ 2°C and to ‘pursue efforts’ to limit it to 1.5°C are in stark contrast to the ever-dwindling carbon budget.
The evidence makes it clear. CO2 needs to be removed from the atmosphere, known as carbon dioxide removal (CDR), using negative emissions technologies (NETs) to meet global warming targets. Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is emerging as the best solution to decarbonise emission-intensive industries and sectors and enable negative emissions.
This Perspective from Christopher Consoli, Senior Consultant - Storage, explores this technology and its deployment as a climate mitigation solution.
Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is a promising class of technologies for carbon dioxide (CO2) removal and consists of the capture and permanent geological storage of CO2 stemming from biomass transformation or combustion. Several industrial sectors can implement this technology, including the biofuel sector which is predominantly made up of bioethanol production. Bioethanol is one of the few renewable alternatives to oil and gas-based liquid fuel, with which it can be easily blended to be used as a transportation fuel.
As countries seek to decarbonise transport, demand for bioethanol is set to grow globally. By integrating CCS into the production process for bioethanol, negative emissions can be created. It is forecast that a significant proportion of the world’s bioethanol production will come from developing countries (International Energy Agency, 2018).
This brief focuses on how the production of bioethanol with CCS can be supported by climate finance providers, and the pivotal role Brazil can play in facilitating this process.
Report led by researchers from University College London: "The role of CCS in meeting climate policy targets"
24th October 2017
Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute
The Global CCS Institute has commissioned an authoritative and independent report that examines policy issues in the deployment of CCS, in accordance with global commitments to limit temperature increases to below 2 and 1.5 degrees Celsius. It outlines comprehensively the arguments made for and against CCS deployment, examines the experience of CCS deployment to date in a range of countries, draws lessons from other analogous technologies, and explores findings from integrated energy systems modelling.
The report is intended to inform a wide variety of stakeholders on the relative importance of the full set of policy instruments available to promote CCS and emission reduction technologies more generally.
The report was led by authors Dr Nick Hughes and Professor Paul Ekins at the UCL Institute for Sustainable Resources, as part of a consortium that drew in other world-leading expertise from the UCL Energy Institute, UCL Faculty of Laws, University of Edinburgh and the UK Energy Research Centre. The project team brought together extensive experience on CCS technology, legal and regulatory issues connected to CCS, low-carbon energy policy-making, energy systems analysis and the governance of energy technologies.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is critical for meeting international climate change targets and deployment must therefore be both rapid and global. To date, deployment has been limited to only a few countries with several factors slowing progress. These factors can be quantified to track a country’s development and to identify enabling opportunities for wide-scale commercial deployment of CCS. This paper outlines the results of the Global CCS Institute’s CCS Readiness Index. The CCS Index quantifies these factors through a set of criteria across four indicators — inherent interest, policy, legal and regulatory, and storage — which are major barriers or accelerators to the deployment of CCS and compares results for over 30 countries. The methodology behind all three indicators is similar, with each indicator employing its own set of criteria to assess conditions within a country at a particular point in time. Countries are then scored against the criteria with the premise being that the highest scoring jurisdictions have the best opportunity for the deployment of a CCS project. The CCS Index demonstrates that countries with clear, long-term policy commitments to use CCS technologies as an emissions reduction method rank highly. Despite strong development trends in some regions of the world, the majority of countries cluster around the midpoint of the analysis, suggesting some progress towards enabling CCS development, but not yet enough to encourage wide-scale deployment.
The successful deployment of carbon capture and storage as a means to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions requires the availability of significant geological storage capacity. Assessments that identify suitable sedimentary basins and their capacity are the first logical step in defining global carbon capture and storage potential. This paper presents a collation and summary of the current status of storage assessments worldwide known as the Global Storage Portfolio. The analysis found that there are substantial storage resources available in most regions of the world. Almost all nations that have published regional assessments have identified sufficient storage resources to support multiple carbon capture and storage projects. This analysis also found that the methods to determine and classify resources are highly variable across regions despite reliable assessment methodologies being available. Case studies on Europe and Southeast Asia discuss the different approaches being undertaken for their respective regional assessments and their progression towards being ready for the deployment of CCS.
Modelling for the Finkel Review – Implications for CCS in the Australian Power Sector
19th July 2017
Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute
The emissions reduction trajectory used in the Finkel Review modelling, by accommodating the Australian Government’s current 2030 target, is not consistent with a 2 or 1.5 degree outcome on which the business case for large scale CCS deployment heavily depends. This is the key element of the modelling that resulted in CCS (and other technologies) not being deployed. This Institute member briefing examines this and other modelling aspects in more detail, including 2 degree compliant scenarios examined earlier by the Climate Change Authority and by CSIRO.
This summary report presents data commissioned by the Global CCS Institute from Advisian (the consulting and advisory arm of WorleyParsons, a global engineering firm) of the current and likely future costs of CCS in power generation and industrial applications. The report provides cost estimates for CCS in seven industries, including power generation, iron and steel, cement and bio-ethanol production. Estimates are also provided for fourteen countries, including China, Germany, Canada, Indonesia, Morocco and South Korea.
The Institute commissioned this dataset to provide an independent and up-to-date reference for various stakeholders wishing to understand the cost and performance of facilities fitted with CCS technologies, including transport and storage. Standardised designs for each facility have been used and costs for these are transposed from the reference location to different countries, reflecting drivers such as local ambient conditions, labour rates and fuel cost and quality. The resulting cost estimates therefore involve a degree of uncertainty that is typical for studies of this type, but provide a sound representation of the likely cost of CCS using today’s commercially available technologies, as well as cost reductions possible from learning-by-doing and by using better technologies that are currently in various stages of development.
The opportunities to promote carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
7th June 2017
Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute
The effective implementation of the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will strongly rely on its leverage of existing institutional arrangements under both the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol, as well as the complementarity of any future arrangements. This staff paper identifies, characterises and analyses how the UNFCCC’s formal communication channels (referred to as ‘vehicles’ in the paper) used to articulate national climate action pledges and response strategies can assist the further development and deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies.
On 5 May the Institute lodged a submission in response to the Australian Government’s discussion paper on its review of climate change policies. This review is being undertaken at a critical time in the Australian energy and climate policy space, and is a stocktake of the Australian Government’s actions towards achieving Australia’s 2030 emission reduction targets and commitments under the Paris Agreement. The Institute’s submission points out the recent progress on large scale CCS facilities around the world and the important role of CCS in meeting Australia’s long-term emission reduction targets in a range of sectors. Central to this is providing policy parity to CCS, which will ensure emission reduction targets are met at least cost and with the optimal mix of technologies. The submission also makes broader recommendations for the Government’s review including the need to set legislated long-term targets that are supported by interim carbon budgets, periodic reporting of progress against targets and better coordination of state, territory and federal government policy.
To promote the development of CCS in China, the Global CCS Institute and China National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) held a joint carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) workshop in Yan’An China in July 2013. Out of this collaboration the Global CCS Institute has commissioned Yanchang Petroleum Group to produce four knowledge-sharing reports on its integrated CCS project.
The third report of the series discusses the monitoring and verification technologies and techniques of Yanchang Petroleum CCUS Project. It highlights project achievements, lessons learned and the future monitoring workplan.
Institute submission on Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) Energy Sector Strategy
7th March 2017
Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute
On 6 March the Institute lodged a submission to the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) regarding its Energy Sector Strategy. The AIIB is a multilateral development bank which commenced operations in January 2016, with the aim of meeting the significant financing needs for infrastructure and economic development across Asia. Its Energy Strategy will be vitally important in guiding the investments of the AIIB and its financing partners across the full suite of technologies that will deliver sustainable, clean energy in the Asia region. As the Institute’s submission points out, the need for CCS in developing countries is significant, owing to a likely continued dependence on fossil fuels as a pathway to economic development, combined with energy demand that is growing at a far greater pace than in developed countries. The Institute’s submission highlights prospects for CCS in several Asian countries and the work already undertaken by the Institute to improve the prospects of CCS deployment in various countries through its Capacity Development activities. The submission also presents analysis on the co-benefits of CCS including job creation and preservation, and addressing localised pollution.
In October 2016, in the wake of a major blackout in the state of South Australia, the Council of Australian Governments directed the country’s chief scientist, Dr Alan Finkel, to draft a blueprint for energy security in the National Electricity Market.
Consultation on this blueprint covers a broad range of issues facing the Australian electricity market, primarily centred around how to ensure the delivery of electricity that is clean, reliable and affordable. The review is taking place during a period of heightened political and community concern over electricity price increases, the exit of traditional coal generation, increasing penetration of intermittent forms of renewable power, and high degrees of carbon and policy risk which are inhibiting investment in other much needed technologies. Recommendations arising from this review will factor into a broader review of Australia’s climate policy to take place over 2017.
The Institute provided its submission to this review of the electricity market on 21 February 2017. It contains analysis demonstrating that CCS is necessary among a full suite of options in achieving a low emissions power grid at least cost, that it can complement intermittent sources of renewable power, and it is cost competitive with the full range of generation and energy storage options being considered.