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Publications, Reports & Research

Our publications, reports and research library hosts over 500 specialist reports and research papers on all topics associated with CCS.

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Carbon capture and storage in the USA: the role of US innovation leadership in climate-technology commercialization
Carbon capture and storage in the USA: the role of US innovation leadership in climate-technology commercialization

16th January 2020

Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute

Topic(s): ccs, CCS Protocol, Innovation, United States

To limit global warming and mitigate climate change, the global economy needs to decarbonize and reduce emissions to net-zero by mid-century. The asymmetries of the global energy system necessitate the deployment of a suite of decarbonization technologies and an all-of-the-above approach to deliver the steep CO2-emissions reductions necessary. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies that capture CO2 from industrial and power-plant point sources as well as the ambient air and store them underground are largely seen as needed to address both the flow of emissions being released and the stock of CO2 already in the atmosphere. Despite the pressing need to commercialize the technologies, their large-scale deployment has been slow.

Initial deployment, however, could lead to near-term cost reduction and technology proliferation, and lowering of the overall system cost of decarbonization. As of November 2019, more than half of global large-scale CCS facilities are in the USA, thanks to a history of sustained government support for the technologies. Recently, the USA has seen a raft of new developments on the policy and project side signaling a reinvigorated push to commercialize the technology. Analysing these recent developents using a policy-priorities framework for CCS commercialization developed by the Global CCS Institute, this paper by Lee Beck, our US-based Senior Advisor for Advocacy and Communications, assesses the USA’s position to lead large-scale deployment of CCS technologies to commercialization. It concludes that the USA is in a prime position due to the political economic characteristics of its energy economy, resource wealth and innovation-driven manufacturing sector.

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Disclaimer

The content within the Global CCS Institute Publications, Reports and Research Library is provided for information purposes only. We make every effort and take reasonable care to keep the content of this section up-to-date and error-free. However, we make no claim as to its accuracy, currency or reliability.

Content and material featured within this section of our website includes reports and research published by third parties. The content and material may include opinions and recommendations of third parties that do not reflect those held by the Global CCS Institute.

Waste-to-Energy with CCS: A pathway to carbon-negative power generation
Waste-to-Energy with CCS: A pathway to carbon-negative power generation

14th October 2019

Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute

Topic(s): ccs, Waste-to-Energy

A growing global population and rising living standards are producing ever greater quantities of municipal solid waste (MSW). This same growth in population and living standards is also driving ever-larger demand for energy, especially electricity.

A key solution to increasing quantities of waste, rising energy demand and methane emissions from MSW is Waste-to-Energy (WtE); the generation of energy – in the form of electricity and heat – from the processing of waste. The addition of carbon capture and storage (CCS) to WtE has the potential to make waste a zero or even negative emissions energy source, depending upon the origin of the wastes utilised.

In our latest Perspective, Senior Consultant - Capture Technology, David T. Kearns, provides an overview of Waste-to-Energy including how it works and its relation to climate change. The Perspective also discusses how the addition of CCS has the potential to make waste a zero, or even negative, emissions energy source.

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Lessons and Perceptions: Adopting a Commercial Approach to CCS Liability
Lessons and Perceptions: Adopting a Commercial Approach to CCS Liability

14th August 2019

Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute

Topic(s): CCS Liability, ccs projects, Liability

Liability has long been raised as a significant barrier to the wide scale deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Despite regulatory developments, the topic of liability continues to be considered by some CCS project developers, policy-makers and regulators as a critical issue and potential ‘show-stopper’ for the technology’s deployment.

This report, through policy and regulatory analysis as well as interviews with policy makers, regulators, lawyers, project proponents and representative from the insurance sector, seeks to challenge these views and make the case for a more commercially-minded view of liability.

The report’s findings reveal that many of the liabilities borne under CCS-specific models are both familiar and eminently manageable. Furthermore, the report demonstrates proposed solutions and examples available in addressing liability for those seeking to invest in or operate CCS projects.

The report also examines the meaning of liability throughout the CCS lifecycle and the unique challenges presented by greenhouse emissions/climate liabilities. The critical role of government and the private sector in allocating and managing risks across the CCS project lifecycle, as well as the essential requirement for further engagement of the insurance sector to assist operators manage liabilities are also topics addressed through this timely report.

The report will be of particular interest to government policy makers, regulatory bodies, CCS project proponents, investors and those in the insurance sector wishing to further understand the topic of liability, the reasons why it is perceived as a barrier to CCS deployment and gain insights into how these barriers have been - and may continue to be - managed and overcome.

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The LCFS and CCS Protocol: An Overview for Policymakers and Project Developers
The LCFS and CCS Protocol: An Overview for Policymakers and Project Developers

24th May 2019

Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute

Topic(s): Biofuels / Bioenergy, Policy, US

The Global CCS Institute has launched a report analyzing California’s recently passed carbon capture and storage protocol. The report provides a summary of the regulation for project developers and policymakers in other states and countries, given the Protocol's global applicability. While comparing it to other relevant regulations – including the federal carbon capture tax credit also known as 45Q – the report seeks to raise awareness for the opportunities created through the protocol and to advance deployment opportunities.

The protocol incentivizes carbon capture and storage projects reducing the lifecycle emissions from bioethanol, hydrogen, and crude, provided the fuel is sold into the California market, as well as direct air capture projects globally.

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Bioenergy and Carbon Capture and Storage
Bioenergy and Carbon Capture and Storage

14th March 2019

Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute

Topic(s): BECCS, Biofuels / Bioenergy, Negative Emissions Technologies

After almost thirty years of climate change negotiations, global CO2 levels are still rising (NOAA, 2018). The UNFCCC Paris Agreement goals of holding global warming to ‘well-below’ 2°C and to ‘pursue efforts’ to limit it to 1.5°C are in stark contrast to the ever-dwindling carbon budget.

The evidence makes it clear. CO2 needs to be removed from the atmosphere, known as carbon dioxide removal (CDR)using negative emissions technologies (NETs) to meet global warming targets. Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is emerging as the best solution to decarbonise emission-intensive industries and sectors and enable negative emissions.

This Perspective from Christopher Consoli, Senior Consultant - Storage, explores this technology and its deployment as a climate mitigation solution.

 

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Financing BECCS in developing countries
Financing BECCS in developing countries

11th February 2019

Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute

Topic(s): BECCS, bioethanol, Project financing

Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is a promising class of technologies for carbon dioxide (CO2) removal and consists of the capture and permanent geological storage of CO2 stemming from biomass transformation or combustion. Several industrial sectors can implement this technology, including the biofuel sector which is predominantly made up of bioethanol production. Bioethanol is one of the few renewable alternatives to oil and gas-based liquid fuel, with which it can be easily blended to be used as a transportation fuel.

As countries seek to decarbonise transport, demand for bioethanol is set to grow globally. By integrating CCS into the production process for bioethanol, negative emissions can be created. It is forecast that a significant proportion of the world’s bioethanol production will come from developing countries (International Energy Agency, 2018).

This brief focuses on how the production of bioethanol with CCS can be supported by climate finance providers, and the pivotal role Brazil can play in facilitating this process.

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Understanding industrial CCS hubs and clusters
Understanding industrial CCS hubs and clusters

28th June 2016

Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute

Topic(s): Hubs and Clusters, Industrial CCS

The technology components of carbon capture and storage (CCS) are already proven and in use across a variety of industries and applications.

In some instances, individual industrial facilities can capture millions of tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year. However, many industrial plants operate at much smaller scales, and as a result have lower overall emissions. While the combined level of emissions from a number of such smaller scale facilities can be significant, it may be uneconomic for any individual facility to consider application of the full CCS chain which includes capture, compression, transport and permanent storage of CO2.

One solution to this problem is clustering, in which several industrial facilities share CCS infrastructure and knowledge, and thus reduce their costs compared with each facility attempting to individually reduce emissions. This report provides an overview of the idea of clustering as applied to industrial CCS projects, and examines the conditions needed for its more widespread adoption.

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