Publications, Reports & Research
Our publications, reports and research library hosts over 500 specialist reports and research papers on all topics associated with CCS.
After almost thirty years of climate change negotiations, global CO2 levels are still rising (NOAA, 2018). The UNFCCC Paris Agreement goals of holding global warming to ‘well-below’ 2°C and to ‘pursue efforts’ to limit it to 1.5°C are in stark contrast to the ever-dwindling carbon budget.
The evidence makes it clear. CO2 needs to be removed from the atmosphere, known as carbon dioxide removal (CDR), using negative emissions technologies (NETs) to meet global warming targets. Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is emerging as the best solution to decarbonise emission-intensive industries and sectors and enable negative emissions.
This Perspective from Christopher Consoli, Senior Consultant - Storage, explores this technology and its deployment as a climate mitigation solution.
REN21’s Renewables Global Status Report provides a comprehensive and timely overview of renewable energy market, industry, investment, and policy developments worldwide. It enables policymakers, industry, investors, and civil society to make informed decisions.
The report covers recent developments, current status, and key trends; by design, it does not provide analysis or forecast.
The Renewables Global Status Report relies on up-to-date renewable energy data, provided by an international network of more than 500 contributors, researchers, and authors.
Forest biomass for energy in the EU: current trends, carbon balance and sustainable potential
1st May 2014
Forest biomass for energy in the EU: current trends, carbon balance and sustainable potential describes a study that aimed to clarify possibilities and implications of woody bioenergy supply for the natural environment and climate for the European Union by 2020 and 2030.
The study estimated the amount of forest-derived and woody biomass that could be sustainably supplied for energy uses without compromising material uses of wood. Particular attention was given to the biodiversity and GHG emissions implications of woody bioenergy supply.
The role of sustainable woody bioenergy in the future EU energy system was analysed for electricity, heat and transport fuels, taking into account the potentials for energy efficiency, and non-bioenergy renewables.
This final report was commissioned by BirdLife Europe, European Environmental Bureau (EEB), and Transport & Environment. The publication is co-authored by International Institute for Sustainability Analysis and Strategy (IINAS), European Forest Institute (EFI) and Joanneum Research (JR).
The Institute for European Environmental Policy produced this report for BirdLife Europe, European Environmental Bureau, and Transport & Environment.
The focus of this report is on the potential for further energy crop production from dedicated crops in Europe on land not already used for food production, forestry, or other uses of social value, including nature conservation. There is already production of crops for energy purposes in Europe, including oilseed rape for biodiesel. But this report addresses how much additional production might be achieved, given the limitations in land availability that the authors have assumed.
This report focuses on bioenergy in Africa, as this form of renewable energy represents almost 50% of the total primary energy supply for the African continent, and more than 60% of the Sub-Saharan TPES. Bioenergy is a strategic asset for Africa’s energy future and needs to be assessed in a transparent manner.
At IRENA’s behest, the German Biomass Research Centre has collected recent studies assessing bioenergy potential in Africa, compared their various methodologies, benchmarked the results, and identified the key dimensioning elements for those assessments.
Biobutanol as a potential sustainable biofuel – assessment of lignocellulosic and waste-based feedstocks
15th April 2013
This paper, from Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, introduces the production process of an alternative transportation biofuel, biobutanol.
European legislation concerning biofuels and their sustainability criteria are also briefly described. The need to develop methods to ensure more sustainable and efficient biofuel production processes is recommended. In addition, the assessment method to evaluate the sustainability of biofuels is considered and sustainability assessment of selected feedstocks for biobutanol production is performed. The benefits and potential of using lignocellulosic and waste materials as feedstocks in the biobutanol production process are also discussed. Sustainability assessment in this paper includes cultivation, harvest/collection and upstream processing (pretreatment) of feedstocks, comparing four main biomass sources: food crops, non-food crops, food industry by-product and wood-based biomass. It can be concluded that the highest sustainable potential in Finland is when biobutanol production is integrated into pulp & paper mills.
This report outlines the outcomes of a European Parliament workshop held in Brussels on 20 February 2013, hosted by Directorate-General for Internal Policies. The workshop consisted of an exchange of views with representatives of EU institutions, research institutes, biofuels industry, NGOs and other stakeholders. The first part presented the European Commission's proposal and provided scientific input on the assessment of the impacts of indirect land-use change (ILUC). The second part introduced policy options and future perspectives from the point of view of industry and NGOs.
The United State’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs.
This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.
The European Technology Platform on Renewable Heating and Cooling produced this document to address the short, medium and longer term research and development needs in the field of renewable heating and cooling technologies. The authors identify research priorities for biomass, geothermal, solar thermal and cross cutting technologies. This document sets out the likely directions of technological and organisational changes that will need to be converted into specific research activities over the next years. Furthermore, it aims to facilitate the coordination of other research programmes in and between member states.
A consortium led by Ecofys was contracted by the European Commission to perform support activities concerning the assessment of progress in renewable energy and sustainability of biofuels.
Renewable electricity futures study. Volume 2: renewable electricity generation and storage technologies
1st June 2012
Organisation(s): National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
The Renewable Electricity Futures Study (RE Futures) is an initial investigation of the extent to which renewable energy supply can meet the electricity demands of the contiguous United States over the next several decades. This volume - Volume 2 - describes the renewable generation and storage technologies included in the study. Each technology is introduced, followed by estimates of resource availability, a characterisation of the technology, a list of output characteristics and grid service possibilities, a description of deployment, and a discussion of barriers and issues.
Review of the generation costs and deployment potential of renewable electricity technologies in the UK
1st October 2011
Arup was appointed by the United Kingdom’s Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) in October 2010 to look at the deployment potential and generation costs of renewable electricity technologies in the UK up to 2030, taking into account sensitivities as to the range of cost inputs, investor behaviour and barriers to deployment. Arup was supported on cost data gathering exercises for some technologies by Ernst and Young (E&Y).