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Publications, Reports & Research

Our publications, reports and research library hosts over 500 specialist reports and research papers on all topics associated with CCS.

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Monitoring Technology for CO2 Geological Sequestration in Ultra-Low Permeability Reservoir of Yanchang Petroleum
Monitoring Technology for CO2 Geological Sequestration in Ultra-Low Permeability Reservoir of Yanchang Petroleum

29th March 2017

Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute, Ltd., Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum (Group) Corp.

Topic(s): CO2 storage

To promote the development of CCS in China, the Global CCS Institute and China National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) held a joint carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) workshop in Yan’An China in July 2013. Out of this collaboration the Global CCS Institute has commissioned Yanchang Petroleum Group to produce four knowledge-sharing reports on its integrated CCS project.

The third report of the series discusses the monitoring and verification technologies and techniques of Yanchang Petroleum CCUS Project. It highlights project achievements, lessons learned and the future monitoring workplan.

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Challenges related to carbon transportation and storage – showstoppers for CCS?
Challenges related to carbon transportation and storage – showstoppers for CCS?

6th January 2017

Topic(s): CO2 storage, CO2 transport

While developments in the capturing of carbon have historically garnered much attention, meeting the objectives and aspirations of the Paris Agreement will require a (shared) CO2 transportation and storage infrastructure that can service multiple sectors of the economy. In some areas, the use of CO2 in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has spurred development of such infrastructure but this opportunity is not available to all and the scale of CCS deployment in coming decades requires much greater access to non-EOR storage resources. A growing body of research is examining various support models that could incentivise CCS. Concepts such as ‘splitting the chain’, or tailoring transportation and storage infrastructure development to help de-risk capture project decision-making, have emerged, along with consideration of various public/private shared investment models.

This policy brief adds to the emerging ‘chorus of voices’ on the importance of transportation and storage infrastructure development in facilitating global CCS deployment. The brief highlights the challenges that will have to be addressed to build out CO2 transportation and storage infrastructure to the scale necessary to meet global climate ambitions and recommends a number of focus areas for policy development and enhancement. 

As we look forward to the next five years and the putting in place of key enablers to global CCS deployment, this policy brief is a valuable addition to aid in public and policy discussion. 

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Probabilistic approach to CO2 plume mapping for prospective storage sites: The CarbonNet experience
Probabilistic approach to CO2 plume mapping for prospective storage sites: The CarbonNet experience

30th November 2016

Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute, Victorian Government

Topic(s): CO2 storage

The Global CCS Institute is supporting the development of the CarbonNet Project through a series of reports and enable the sharing of knowledge throughout its development. The CarbonNet Project is in its feasibility phase and planning the development of a hub-based network that will centre on a large capacity pipeline to deep, secure storage sites, offshore Victoria, Australia. The Project is planning to store up to 125 million tonnes over 25 years in the Gippsland Basin.

The Gippsland Basin holds world class geologic formations for CO2 storage with multiple 100-150m thick, multi-Darcy, clean quartz-dominated sands, overlain by thick caprocks. The ideal geologic conditions means that the CO2 will be mobile and enable accurate plume prediction modelling which is critical during this phase of CarbonNet's site characterisation. Moreover, in Australia storage regulations require plume path predictions with more than 10 per cent probability, that is 90% confidence of the CO2 plume's movement throughout the project’s lifecycle. Because of the petroleum industry’s decades of experience in modelling and probabilistic analysis, CarbonNet has been able to adapt this expertise for CO2 storage modelling in the Gippsland Basin.

The modelling focussed on a large anticlinal structure in the near shore Gippsland Basin, with an injection point down dip from the crest of the structure. The modelling and probabilistic analysis found that the variations in input data for porosity, permeability and residual gas saturation strongly affect the horizontal and lateral movement of the plume in the formations. The simulation modelling was completed over seven time frames from 10 years through to 300 years after injection commences. The analysis found that after the injection of 125 million tonnes, the CO2 plume migrated into the anticlinal structure but never moved outside the structure. CarbonNet's CO2 plume modelling methodology enables a quantified plume path uncertainty analysis both laterally (i.e. map view) and vertical extent (cross-section), offering 3D understanding of plume containment. This report confirms that containment can be demonstrated with an appropriate high level of regulatory and public confidence.

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GipNet – Baseline environmental data gathering and measurement technology validation for nearshore marine Carbon Storage
GipNet – Baseline environmental data gathering and measurement technology validation for nearshore marine Carbon Storage

22nd August 2016

Organisation(s): Department of Economic Development, Global CCS Institute, Jobs, Transport and Resources, Victorian Government

Topic(s): CO2 storage, CO2 transport

The Global CCS Institute is supporting the CarbonNet Project through the development of a series of knowledge share reports. The CarbonNet Project has completed its feasibility phase investigating the development of a hub-based network that will centre on a large capacity pipeline transporting CO2 to secure subsurface offshore storage sites, in Victoria, Australia. The Project's storage sites, for which permits have been obtained, have the capacity to store up to 5 million tonnes pa over 25 years in the nearshore shallow marine environment of the Gippsland Basin.
 
The measurement, monitoring, and verification (MMV) of the CO2 plume will be a standard procedure during the operation of any CCS project. Before monitoring of the plume commences, the natural environment prior to injection must be understood. Often this is achieved through baseline monitoring and requires the validation of techniques for the particular context. Baseline monitoring predominantly will focus on establishing what the conditions are like in the storage complex prior to injection. But the monitoring can also extend to measuring the natural variability of CO2 on the surface and near-surface around the storage site and recording the background geological conditions (eg. seismicity). Given the long time frames and normal variation in environmental and operating conditions during the lifespan of a CCS MMV program, it is critical that the technologies selected meet future operating requirements including regulatory requirements and stakeholder expectations.
 
This report reviews the practicalities of establishing three baseline measurement networks that span different aspects of the Gippsland nearshore environment:
•Seismicity,
•Atmospheric conditions, and
•Seafloor and water column conditions.
 
These networks will be deployed through the GipNet Program. The purpose of the Program is to validate thresholds for detection in the local environment, i.e. the nearshore shallow marine area in which CarbonNet's storage sites are located. This area is similar in many respects to other prospective storage basins globally. If successful the technologies could be used to undertake pre-injection baseline measurements and may form a component of the MMV program for the CarbonNet Project. The report details a five-year program, including the proposed technologies to be used and outlines the advantages and limitations of each technology. Importantly, the report describes the potential for the technology to determine whether stored CO2 is behaving as expected; this is a critical requirement for stakeholder assurance.

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Effective enforcement of underground storage of carbon dioxide
Effective enforcement of underground storage of carbon dioxide

5th August 2016

Organisation(s): HWL Ebsworth Lawyers

Topic(s): CO2 storage, Law and regulation, Policy

The perception of an effective enforcement regime that ensures the secure and safe storage of CO2 in underground geologic formations will be crucial in increasing public and industry confidence in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a viable low-carbon technology.

An effective enforcement regime for underground storage of CO2 has the following key features:

  • Comprehensive obligations that address the key risks of underground storage of CO2
  • Comprehensive monitoring and verification (M&V) requirements, including baseline monitoring, M&V obligations during the injection phase and M&V obligations post-injection
  • Enforcement mechanisms that are risk-based, layered and flexible, grounded in science and fact-based decision-making, and include the ability to deal with 'serious situations' (such as unintended releases and CO2 not behaving as predicted)
  • A clear allocation of roles and responsibilities for enforcement.

Download this report.

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Global storage portfolio: a global assessment of the geological CO2 storage resource potential
Global storage portfolio: a global assessment of the geological CO2 storage resource potential

1st March 2016

Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute

Topic(s): Carbon capture, CO2 storage, Engineering and project delivery, Use and storage (CCUS)

Exclusive Member Access

Christopher Consoli, Institute Senior Adviser for Storage, Asia-Pacific provides an overview of this report in an Insight available on the Global CCS Institute website.

The primary purpose of the Institute’s Global Storage Portfolio is to collate and summarise published regional assessments of key nations. The Portfolio also summarises key data on a nation’s readiness to host a commercial, large-scale project. For this reason, only proven storage scenarios including deep saline formations (DSF), depleted/depleting oil and gas fields (DGOF) and enhanced oil recovery using CO2 (CO2-EOR) are considered. The analysis has found that:

  • Substantial storage resources are present in most key regions of the world.
  • Reliable methodologies to determine and classify regional storage resources are available and have been widely applied, although there is no formally recognised international standard.
  • The level of resource assessment undertaken and the availability of characterisation data is highly variable across regions.
  • The level of detail a regional resource assessment has progressed as well as the policy, legal and regulatory frameworks are key criteria that can be used to gauge the readiness of any given nation to deploy a CCS project.

The storage resources are grouped into five regions:

  1. Asia-Pacific (fourteen countries)
  2. Americas (five countries)
  3. Middle East (three countries)
  4. Europe and Russia (EU plus three countries)
  5. Africa (four countries).

​The resulting portfolio will enable the reader to rapidly establish a snapshot of a country’s storage resource and potential to deploy a large-scale project.

Exclusive Member Access

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Yanchang Petroleum report 2: CO2 storage and EOR in ultra-low permeability reservoir in the Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin
Yanchang Petroleum report 2: CO2 storage and EOR in ultra-low permeability reservoir in the Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin

22nd January 2016

Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute, Ltd., Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum (Group) Corp.

Topic(s): Carbon capture, CO2 storage, CO2 utilisation, Use and storage (CCUS)

To promote the development of CCS in China, the Global CCS Institute and China National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) held a joint carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) workshop in Yan’An China in July 2013. Out of this collaboration the Global CCS Institute has commissioned Yanchang Petroleum Group to produce four knowledge-sharing reports on its integrated CCS project.

This second report of the series discusses the storage aspects of Yanchang Petroleum CCUS Project. It highlights project achievements and lessons learned from the project.

Christopher Consoli, Institute Senior Adviser for Storage, Asia-Pacific provides an overview of this report in an Insight available on the Global CCS Institute website.

 

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Roadmap for carbon capture and storage demonstration and deployment in the People's Republic of China
Roadmap for carbon capture and storage demonstration and deployment in the People's Republic of China

2nd December 2015

Organisation(s): Asian Development Bank (ADB)

Topic(s): Carbon capture, CO2 capture, CO2 storage, CO2 utilisation, Domestic policy, Law and regulation, Policy, Use and storage (CCUS)

This Roadmap provides information on how China could achieve its climate goals through policy measures that encourage the deployment of CCS out to 2050. The work draws from economic modelling by experts at The Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy at Tsinghua University, and The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.

Additional Work Package Reports

  • Road Map for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Demonstration and Deployment: Work Package 1 Report - Review of CCS Roadmaps (March 2015)
  • Road Map for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Demonstration and Deployment: Work Package 4 Report - CCS Regulatory Framework for the People's Republic of China (March 2015)
  • Road Map for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Demonstration and Deployment: Work Package 5a Report and 5b Report - Opportunities for CCS Deployment in the People's Republic of China under Low Carbon Transformation Scenarios (Mar 2015)
  • Road Map for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Demonstration and Deployment: Component B - Oxy-Fuel Combustion Technology Assessment

Insights about this report, from Lawrence Irlam (Global CCS Institute Senior Adviser Policy & Economics), Tony Wood (the Grattan Institute’s Energy Program), and Annika Seiler (Finance Specialist (Energy) with the Asian Development Bank (ADB)) are available on the Global CCS Institute website.

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The Quest for less CO2: learning from CCS implementation in Canada. A case study on Shell's Quest CCS Project
The Quest for less CO2: learning from CCS implementation in Canada. A case study on Shell's Quest CCS Project

18th November 2015

Organisation(s): Shell

Topic(s): Carbon capture, CO2 capture, CO2 storage, Use and storage (CCUS)

Shell presents this case study on the Quest Carbon Capture and Storage Project. By capturing and permanently storing CO2 from Shell’s oil sands operations, the Quest flagship project will reduce CO2 emissions by more than one million tonnes a year. 

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CO2の確実な地層貯留
CO2の確実な地層貯留

17th November 2015

Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute

Topic(s): Carbon capture, CO2 storage, Use and storage (CCUS)

インスティテュートは、CCSに関する基本情報をまとめたFACT SHEETシリーズを作成した。「CO2の確実な地層貯留」は、CO2の貯留に焦点を当て概要をとりまとめたものである。

Japanese translation of Secure geologic storage of CO2.

 

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The CarbonNet Project: 3D mapping and correlation of intraformational seals within the Latrobe Group in the nearshore Gippsland Basin
The CarbonNet Project: 3D mapping and correlation of intraformational seals within the Latrobe Group in the nearshore Gippsland Basin

15th October 2015

Organisation(s): Department of Economic Development, Global CCS Institute, Jobs, Transport and Resources

Topic(s): Carbon capture, CO2 storage, Use and storage (CCUS)

The Global CCS Institute presents the sixth report published by the CarbonNet Project, located in Victoria, Australia, this report has focussed on a critical aspect of CO2 storage - containment of the CO2. CarbonNet are investigating the potential for establishing a large scale, multi user CCS network bringing together multiple CO2 capture projects, transporting CO2 via a shared pipeline and injecting it deep into an underground, offshore storage site and is currently in feasibility and commercial definition stage.

The Gippsland Basin is known to have a world-class proven regional seal (or caprocks), known as the Lakes Entrance Formation it has stored oil and gas accumulations for tens of millions of years. This regional seal has always been identified as the final barrier to CO2 plume migration in any storage concept in the basin. This report has identified several additional, laterally extensive seals below the regional seal, known as the T2 seal. These additional sealing units are expected to provide an effective barrier to the CO2 injected into the primary storage targets below in the Halibut reservoirs. The T2 seals are proven to be effective containment rocks as they have previously retained oil and gas accumulations locally and nearby. Also, lab measurements on rock samples of the seal suggest they could hold back a column of CO2 in excess of what is expected to be required in the reservoirs below. This investigation has revealed there may be hundreds of gigatonnes of additional storage available and confirms that the Gippsland Basin is a world class storage site for CCS.

This report is authored by N. Hoffman , T. Evans, N. Arian, The CarbonNet Project, Melbourne, Australia; Guy Holdgate, University of Melbourne. Chris Consoli, Institute Senior Adviser for Storage, Asia-Pacific also provides an overview of the report in an Insight available on the Global CCS Institute website.

 

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The CarbonNet Project: integrity of wells in the near-shore area Gippsland Basin Victoria
The CarbonNet Project: integrity of wells in the near-shore area Gippsland Basin Victoria

14th October 2015

Organisation(s): Department of Economic Development, Global CCS Institute, Jobs, Transport and Resources

Topic(s): Carbon capture, CO2 storage, Use and storage (CCUS)

The Global CCS Institute presents this new report by CarbonNet evaluating the impact legacy petroleum wells may have on their search for CO2 storage sites in the nearshore Gippsland Basin. The CarbonNet Project is investigating the potential to establish a CCS Hub bringing together multiple CO2 capture projects in Victoria’s Latrobe Valley, transporting CO2 via a shared pipeline and injecting it into deep saline formations in the nearshore Gippsland Basin.

This report identified and then analysed legacy petroleum wells that may have an impact on the feasibility of CO2 storage sites targeted as future storage concepts. The analysis included using data lodged with the regulatory authority to assess how the legacy petroleum wells were ‘completed’. The investigation found that none of the wells have any significant risk of leakage and that there is negligible risk of CO2 rising to near-surface levels.

This report is authored by Todd Goebel, Nick Hoffman, Barry Nicholson, and The CarbonNet Project. Chris Consoli, Institute Senior Adviser for Storage, Asia-Pacific also provides an overview of the report in a new Insight available on the Global CCS Institute website.

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