Publications, Reports & Research
Our publications, reports and research library hosts over 500 specialist reports and research papers on all topics associated with CCS.
Modelling for the Finkel Review – Implications for CCS in the Australian Power Sector
19th July 2017
Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute
The emissions reduction trajectory used in the Finkel Review modelling, by accommodating the Australian Government’s current 2030 target, is not consistent with a 2 or 1.5 degree outcome on which the business case for large scale CCS deployment heavily depends. This is the key element of the modelling that resulted in CCS (and other technologies) not being deployed. This Institute member briefing examines this and other modelling aspects in more detail, including 2 degree compliant scenarios examined earlier by the Climate Change Authority and by CSIRO.
This summary report presents data commissioned by the Global CCS Institute from Advisian (the consulting and advisory arm of WorleyParsons, a global engineering firm) of the current and likely future costs of CCS in power generation and industrial applications. The report provides cost estimates for CCS in seven industries, including power generation, iron and steel, cement and bio-ethanol production. Estimates are also provided for fourteen countries, including China, Germany, Canada, Indonesia, Morocco and South Korea.
The Institute commissioned this dataset to provide an independent and up-to-date reference for various stakeholders wishing to understand the cost and performance of facilities fitted with CCS technologies, including transport and storage. Standardised designs for each facility have been used and costs for these are transposed from the reference location to different countries, reflecting drivers such as local ambient conditions, labour rates and fuel cost and quality. The resulting cost estimates therefore involve a degree of uncertainty that is typical for studies of this type, but provide a sound representation of the likely cost of CCS using today’s commercially available technologies, as well as cost reductions possible from learning-by-doing and by using better technologies that are currently in various stages of development.
The opportunities to promote carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
7th June 2017
Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute
The effective implementation of the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will strongly rely on its leverage of existing institutional arrangements under both the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol, as well as the complementarity of any future arrangements. This staff paper identifies, characterises and analyses how the UNFCCC’s formal communication channels (referred to as ‘vehicles’ in the paper) used to articulate national climate action pledges and response strategies can assist the further development and deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies.
On 5 May the Institute lodged a submission in response to the Australian Government’s discussion paper on its review of climate change policies. This review is being undertaken at a critical time in the Australian energy and climate policy space, and is a stocktake of the Australian Government’s actions towards achieving Australia’s 2030 emission reduction targets and commitments under the Paris Agreement. The Institute’s submission points out the recent progress on large scale CCS facilities around the world and the important role of CCS in meeting Australia’s long-term emission reduction targets in a range of sectors. Central to this is providing policy parity to CCS, which will ensure emission reduction targets are met at least cost and with the optimal mix of technologies. The submission also makes broader recommendations for the Government’s review including the need to set legislated long-term targets that are supported by interim carbon budgets, periodic reporting of progress against targets and better coordination of state, territory and federal government policy.
To promote the development of CCS in China, the Global CCS Institute and China National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) held a joint carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) workshop in Yan’An China in July 2013. Out of this collaboration the Global CCS Institute has commissioned Yanchang Petroleum Group to produce four knowledge-sharing reports on its integrated CCS project.
The third report of the series discusses the monitoring and verification technologies and techniques of Yanchang Petroleum CCUS Project. It highlights project achievements, lessons learned and the future monitoring workplan.
Institute submission on Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) Energy Sector Strategy
7th March 2017
Organisation(s): Global CCS Institute
On 6 March the Institute lodged a submission to the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) regarding its Energy Sector Strategy. The AIIB is a multilateral development bank which commenced operations in January 2016, with the aim of meeting the significant financing needs for infrastructure and economic development across Asia. Its Energy Strategy will be vitally important in guiding the investments of the AIIB and its financing partners across the full suite of technologies that will deliver sustainable, clean energy in the Asia region. As the Institute’s submission points out, the need for CCS in developing countries is significant, owing to a likely continued dependence on fossil fuels as a pathway to economic development, combined with energy demand that is growing at a far greater pace than in developed countries. The Institute’s submission highlights prospects for CCS in several Asian countries and the work already undertaken by the Institute to improve the prospects of CCS deployment in various countries through its Capacity Development activities. The submission also presents analysis on the co-benefits of CCS including job creation and preservation, and addressing localised pollution.
In October 2016, in the wake of a major blackout in the state of South Australia, the Council of Australian Governments directed the country’s chief scientist, Dr Alan Finkel, to draft a blueprint for energy security in the National Electricity Market.
Consultation on this blueprint covers a broad range of issues facing the Australian electricity market, primarily centred around how to ensure the delivery of electricity that is clean, reliable and affordable. The review is taking place during a period of heightened political and community concern over electricity price increases, the exit of traditional coal generation, increasing penetration of intermittent forms of renewable power, and high degrees of carbon and policy risk which are inhibiting investment in other much needed technologies. Recommendations arising from this review will factor into a broader review of Australia’s climate policy to take place over 2017.
The Institute provided its submission to this review of the electricity market on 21 February 2017. It contains analysis demonstrating that CCS is necessary among a full suite of options in achieving a low emissions power grid at least cost, that it can complement intermittent sources of renewable power, and it is cost competitive with the full range of generation and energy storage options being considered.
2016年全球碳捕集与封存现状报告 着重介绍了一些2016年实现的重大里程碑式成果，和在2016年已经进入运行或者很快就要开始运行的重要项目。2016年全球碳捕集与封存现状报告 由5个独立的报告组成，包括一份可以对外公开的报告摘要和研究院会员专享的系列报告。
While developments in the capturing of carbon have historically garnered much attention, meeting the objectives and aspirations of the Paris Agreement will require a (shared) CO2 transportation and storage infrastructure that can service multiple sectors of the economy. In some areas, the use of CO2 in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has spurred development of such infrastructure but this opportunity is not available to all and the scale of CCS deployment in coming decades requires much greater access to non-EOR storage resources. A growing body of research is examining various support models that could incentivise CCS. Concepts such as ‘splitting the chain’, or tailoring transportation and storage infrastructure development to help de-risk capture project decision-making, have emerged, along with consideration of various public/private shared investment models.
This policy brief adds to the emerging ‘chorus of voices’ on the importance of transportation and storage infrastructure development in facilitating global CCS deployment. The brief highlights the challenges that will have to be addressed to build out CO2 transportation and storage infrastructure to the scale necessary to meet global climate ambitions and recommends a number of focus areas for policy development and enhancement.
As we look forward to the next five years and the putting in place of key enablers to global CCS deployment, this policy brief is a valuable addition to aid in public and policy discussion.
The Global CCS Institute is supporting the development of the CarbonNet Project through a series of reports and enable the sharing of knowledge throughout its development. The CarbonNet Project is in its feasibility phase and planning the development of a hub-based network that will centre on a large capacity pipeline to deep, secure storage sites, offshore Victoria, Australia. The Project is planning to store up to 125 million tonnes over 25 years in the Gippsland Basin.
The Gippsland Basin holds world class geologic formations for CO2 storage with multiple 100-150m thick, multi-Darcy, clean quartz-dominated sands, overlain by thick caprocks. The ideal geologic conditions means that the CO2 will be mobile and enable accurate plume prediction modelling which is critical during this phase of CarbonNet's site characterisation. Moreover, in Australia storage regulations require plume path predictions with more than 10 per cent probability, that is 90% confidence of the CO2 plume's movement throughout the project’s lifecycle. Because of the petroleum industry’s decades of experience in modelling and probabilistic analysis, CarbonNet has been able to adapt this expertise for CO2 storage modelling in the Gippsland Basin.
The modelling focussed on a large anticlinal structure in the near shore Gippsland Basin, with an injection point down dip from the crest of the structure. The modelling and probabilistic analysis found that the variations in input data for porosity, permeability and residual gas saturation strongly affect the horizontal and lateral movement of the plume in the formations. The simulation modelling was completed over seven time frames from 10 years through to 300 years after injection commences. The analysis found that after the injection of 125 million tonnes, the CO2 plume migrated into the anticlinal structure but never moved outside the structure. CarbonNet's CO2 plume modelling methodology enables a quantified plume path uncertainty analysis both laterally (i.e. map view) and vertical extent (cross-section), offering 3D understanding of plume containment. This report confirms that containment can be demonstrated with an appropriate high level of regulatory and public confidence.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is critical for meeting international climate change targets, and therefore deployment must be both rapid and global. To date, deployment has been limited to only a few countries and industries, with several factors slowing further progress.
The Global CCS Institute (Institute) has developed a ‘CCS Readiness Index’ (CCS Index) which quantifies these factors, based on assessment criteria across four indicators — inherent interest, policy, legal and regulatory (legal) and storage — which reflect major barriers or enablers for the deployment of CCS.