Publications, Reports & Research
Our publications, reports and research library hosts over 500 specialist reports and research papers on all topics associated with CCS.
Toward a common method of cost estimation for CO2 capture and storage at fossil fuel power plants
30th January 2013
Organisation(s): DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Global CCS Institute, IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG), International Energy Agency (IEA), Zero Emissions Platform
There are more than 100 papers in the public domain on the costs of CCS. However, there are significant differences in the methods employed by various organizations to estimate the cost of CCS systems for fossil fuel power plants. Many of these differences were discussed at a series of workshops, commencing in 2011, through which an international group of experts from industrial firms, government agencies, universities, and environmental organizations met to share information and perspectives on CCS costs for electric power plants.
Such differences often are not readily apparent in publicly reported CCS cost estimates. As a consequence, there is a significant degree of misunderstanding, confusion, and misrepresentation of CCS cost information, especially among audiences not familiar with the details of CCS costing.
A key recommendation of the first workshop was that a task force be formed to develop guidelines and recommendations for a costing method and nomenclature that could be broadly adopted to produce more consistent and transparent cost estimates for CCS applied to electric power plants.
Commencing in late 2011, and Chaired by Ed Rubin, task force members George Booras (EPRI), John Davison (IEAGHG), Clas Ekstrom (Vattenfall), Mike Matuszewski (USDOE/NETL), Sean McCoy (IEA) and Chris Short (Global CCS Institute) prepared a White Paper outlining both differences that exist in many current studies as well as providing guidelines and procedures for CCS costing, encompassing the full chain of CCS.
The aim of the work is not to suggest or recommend a uniform set of assumptions or premises for CCS cost estimates. There are good reasons why the cost of a given technology may vary from one situation to another and from one location to another. Rather, the sole objective is to help all parties with an interest or stake in CCS costing do a better job by addressing the major deficiencies in current costing methods, especially differences in the items included in a cost analysis.
The report addresses six major topics relevant to CCS costs
- defining project scope and design
- defining nomenclature and cost categories for CCS cost estimates
- quantifying elements of CCS cost
- defining financial structure and economic assumptions
- calculating the costs of electricity and CO2 avoided
- guidelines for CCS cost reporting
This report provides an update for oxyfuel-combustion carbon capture in the power industry. It was developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) on behalf of the Global CCS Institute.
In the oxyfuel-combustion processes, the bulk nitrogen is removed from the air before combustion. The resulting combustion products will have CO2 content up to about 90 per cent (dry basis). The flue gas impurities (predominantly O2, N2, and Ar) may be removed by reducing the flue gas (at moderate pressure) to a temperature at which the CO2 condenses and the impurities do not. Oxyfuel-combustion may be employed with solid fuels such as coal, petroleum coke, and biomass, as well as liquid and gaseous fuels.
Some key points raised in the oxyfuel-combustion carbon capture report are:
- The oxyfuel-combustion/CO2 capture power plant designs being developed and deployed for service in the next four or five years are based on individual component technologies and arrangements which have demonstrated sufficient maturity, with the greatest remaining technical challenge being integrating the systems into a complete steam-electric power plant.
- By its nature, an oxyfuel-coal power plant is likely to be a 'near zero' emitter of all criteria pollutants.
- Existing air-fired power plants might be retrofitted with an air separation unit, oxyfuel-fired burners, flue gas recycle, and a CO2 processing unit, with the large fleet of air-fired power plants in service calling for more study of this option.
- Future efficiency improvements to the oxyfuel-combustion process for power generation point toward an oxyfuel-combustion plant with near zero emissions of conventional pollutants, up to 98 per cent CO2 capture, and efficiency comparable to the best power plants currently being built.
This report provides an update for pre-combustion carbon capture in the power industry. It was developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) on behalf of the Global CCS Institute.
Some key points raised in the pre-combustion carbon capture knowledge product are:
- CO2 removal from coal gasification derived synthesis gas (syngas) is a mature commercial process widely practiced throughout the world.
- Although there is additional capital involved, the largest component of the poor economic performance in pre-combustion capture systems is the loss of energy involved.
- Much of the RD&D effort is aimed at reducing the energy losses due to capture in the various process steps but one of the greatest improvements to the overall IGCC technology is the development of high firing temperature larger gas turbines of higher efficiency.
- The next key event for the advance of pre-combustion capture technology will be the integrated operation of the first IGCC plant with capture at the Kemper County IGCC plant in Mississippi in 2014.
- EPRI and the US Department Of Energy have identified a roadmap of IGCC technology developments that can potentially improve the IGCC efficiency to a level that matches or exceeds that of the current IGCC technology without capture.
- With IGCC there are multiple pathways of improvements using different gasification technologies which may find particular application more favourably in certain climate conditions, locations and coal types.
This is the first in a series of reports that provide detail on the various capture technologies, with a primary focus on the power industry. These reports appeal not only to technical stakeholders, but also to non-technical project people and other stakeholders responsible for regulation and funding of large-scale integrated projects. The reports have been developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) for the Global CCS Institute.
By necessity, the reports have been split in terms of technology (post-combustion, pre-combustion, and oxy-combustion carbon capture), with a specific section examining each topic in detail. There is also an overview that provides an overall comparison, as well as background to allow stakeholders to interpret information in the different capture technology report sections.
Other key points raised in the overview are:
- Although current technology needs further improvements, it is extremely important to demonstrate CCS on a commercial scale as soon as possible. This is necessary for the demonstration of capture technology operating in an integrated mode in a real power plant and in a real power grid environment.
- Unless progress is made at the commercial CCS demonstration scale, it will become increasingly difficult to justify continued R&D funding on potential improvements to capture and storage technologies.
- If multiple CCS demonstrations with improved technologies are to be achieved at large scale by 2020 to proceed with commercial deployment, many technologies need to be approaching the pilot plant stage today.
- Thermal efficiency improvements in 'host' power plants (without carbon capture) offer an effective way to mitigate carbon emissions in their own right (2 per cent efficiency improvements result in a 5 per cent reduction in carbon emissions).
This report provides an update for post-combustion carbon capture in the power industry.
Post-combustion capture refers to the separation of CO2 from flue gas derived from combusting fossil fuels – coal, natural gas, or oil – in air. Some key points raised in the post-combustion carbon capture report include:
- The exclusive emphasis is currently on absorption (into solvents) on near-term technologies, reflecting the fact that industry’s CO2 capture chemistry knowledge and overall process experience are both heavily slated towards absorption.
- The major challenges in post-combustion capture revolve around the relatively large parasitic load CCS imposes on a power plant, the majority of which is due to capture, especially the energy needed to regenerate the solvent.
- Development of new chemistry, new process designs and novel power plant integration schemes all aimed at reducing the parasitic load of CCS are the focus of virtually all R&D in post-combustion capture.
- In general, capital cost reductions, solvent degradation, solvent volatility and other such parameters are secondary to the prime issue of reduction in parasitic load on the host power plant imposed by the process itself.
Strategic analysis of the global status of carbon capture and storage. Report 4: existing carbon capture and storage research and development networks around the world
1st November 2009
In May 2009, a consortium led by WorleyParsons and comprising Schlumberger, Electric Power Research Institute and Baker & McKenzie was engaged to undertake the Strategic Analysis of the Global Status of Carbon Capture and Storage.
The consortium was tasked to undertake a comprehensive survey of the status of CCS and to develop a series of reports analysing CCS projects, the economics of CCS, policies supporting CCS development and existing research and development networks. A fifth report - the Synthesis Report - was also developed and this summarises the findings of the first four reports, and provides a comprehensive assessment of the gaps and barriers to the deployment of large-scale CCS projects, including strategies and recommendations to address these issues.
The Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. (EPRI) has examined options for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the electric sector. This publication details EPRI’s analysis, showing significant potential carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction from advanced coal power systems that include CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology, making such systems likely to be an essential component of a full portfolio of GHG reductions strategies.
Indonesia has not introduced any policies or legislation dedicated to encouraging the development of CCS technologies or regulating the CCS project cycle.Indonesia has introduced a number of climate change and energy conservation policies which could provide a framework for high-level policy support for CCS incentives.
The Indonesian Government is cooperating with the governments of other countries including Norway and the United Kingdom to map potential CO2 sequestration sites in Indonesia.